105%20Chapter%205 - 1 Hss 105 Technology and Culture...

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Hss 105 – Technology and Culture Chapter 5: Diffusion of Technology * “Technology is of no use, unless it is put to use.” How is technology adopted/adapted by individuals and organizations That actually put them to use? * International Diffusion -- It is human to believe that we’ve invented everything. The USSR said that it did – from the steam engine to baseball. -- No nation (one that is technically dynamic) is insulated from the in- fluence of other lands. -- A Principle : Continued advances require infusion of ideas, tools, materials, people and the ability to make good use of them * In 1500 AD, China had the greatest inventive achievements! -- Their technologies (compass, paper, gunpowder) influenced Europe. Also, the segmental bridge, chain-driven transmission, spinning wheel, waterlight bulkheads for ships, printing, fishing nets, paddle-wheel boats, earthquake detection devices, fine porcelin, etc. -- In two centuries, Europe surpassed China! = Europe wisely adopted China’s inventions. ( ) paper: essential for printing, circulation of ideas, the Reformation ( ) stirrup: revolution of warfare ( ) Horse Collar: horsepower = Europeans were willing to accept and make use of technology from foreign lands. = China was a CLOSED country; the Middle Kingdom. ( ) China had a “superior” attitude towards Westerners ( ) China had a self-sufficient economy; they didn’t need anyone or their products! ( ) This attitude persisted until 1898 when the elite advo- cated a combination of Western techniques with Chinese culture!!! ( ) Then, suddenly, the combination was aborted when dowager empress, Dzu Xi took over. She dashed China’s chance to “Westernize.” ( ) 1912 – 1949 Chinese Republic = infusion; then, this was eclipsed (aborted) by Chiang Kai-shek’s “New Life Movement,” a return to traditional Chinese thinking (Confucian virtues). ( ) 1950’s – 1960’s, Arrogant Russia shared some of its 1
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technology with Communist China in an effort to achieve world-wide Communism. ( ) Mao, the Communist leader, wanted China to be alook from the rest of the world; he stressed, again, self- reliance. ( ) 1980’s China demonstrates openness to the modern world. Watch this: Economically, China is open, BUT, NOT POLITICALLY. ( ) China’s attitude now is, “No nation has a monopoly on culture.” * The United States begans its economic/commercial revolution -- 1790, Samuel Slater, emigrated from England. He had a photographic memory and designed the first successful spinning factory in the U.S. -- American had to import its first technologies, i.e. drawings, procedures for canal building (even the wheelbarrow!) -- Immigrant people gave pioneering efforts vs. Yankee ingenuity. = Bakelite – was the work of a man born and educated in Belgium
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105%20Chapter%205 - 1 Hss 105 Technology and Culture...

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