midterm2 - 1 C.J. Gorrell Hist 174 Mid term 2 A Transition...

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C.J. Gorrell Hist 174 Mid term 2 A Transition in Scientific Methods One of the themes emphasized in Unit II of the course has been the switch from an Enlightenment organization of science based on methodology (natural history vs. natural philosophy) to one based on subject (biological sciences, physical sciences, earth sciences). Write an essay discussing the causes and effects of such reorganization on scientific practice and the places in which scientific research was conducted. Why do you think this transition occurred? 1
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I. Intro a. Summary of enlightenment era to 19 th century b. Change was not abrupt, but a slow developed transition c. Thesis i. Reorganization of scientific practice ii. Shift in the location of research iii. The cause II. Reorganization of scientific practice a. Into to Helmholtz reading i. Helmholtz was last to do a true complete generalization ii. Scientists become specialized b. Realization of errors and gaps in previous works c. Division (breaking down into multiple parts) in the previous study and works of previous scientists d. Too much work to study everything e. Great advancements beyond reason f. Rapid increase of the size of the field of science g. Increase in depth of subjects h. Industrial development of technology i. THUS i. Rise of the professional scientist ii. Industrial and technological implementation of science III. Shift in the location of research a. Movement from i. Churches 2
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C.J. Gorrell Hist 174 Mid term 2 A Transition in Scientific Methods ii. Universities iii. Courts b. Movement to i. Coffee houses ii. Salons iii. Museums c. Development of scientific societies was a major cause d. Increase in educated population e. Demand for large gathering of scientific history f. Often a result of a search for the resolution to a debate g. Thus i. Demand for accurate truth ii. Division in research among museum employees IV.Conclusion a. Reiterate thesis b. What the transition resulted in c. The next historical step During the age of Enlightenment, there were two major scientific centrums of focus, natural philosophy and natural history. However, some time between the beginning of the age of Enlightenment and the Industrial Revolution of the 19 th century the scientific centrums began to tediously spread and separate into new divisions that included biology, 3
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earth sciences, chemistry, and physics. This was not the only major change. There was also a shift in the location and methods by which scientific research and development was conducted. We must explore the causes and effects of this reorganization of the scientific practices as well as the shift in the location of where scientific research was preformed in order to determine what was
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midterm2 - 1 C.J. Gorrell Hist 174 Mid term 2 A Transition...

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