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chapter 9 slides

chapter 9 slides - Chemical Equilibria Chapter 9 CHEM 6B Dr...

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1 Chemical Equilibria Chapter 9 CHEM 6B Dr. DiPasquale CHEMICAL PRINCIPLES: A Quest for Insight – Atkins & Jones Chemical Equilibrium circle6 The forward and reverse reactions are occurring simultaneously at the same rates. circle6 There is no net change in the concentration of the products nor the reactants at chemical equilibrium. circle6 How do we know if we are at chemical equilibrium? circle6 Answer: change the conditions. circle6 Does the equilibrium shift?
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2 Chemical Equilibrium 2( ) 2 4( ) 2NO N O g s Chemical Equilibrium circle6 All chemical equilibria are dynamic equilibria. circle6 The composition of the reaction mixture can be expressed in terms of an equilibrium constant ( K ). circle6 The equilibrium constant is characteristic of the reaction mixture at equilibrium at a given temperature.
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3 Gas Equilibria equilibrium partial pressure of the products partial pressure of the reactants K = ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) A B C D g g g g w x y z + + C D A B equilibrium y z w x P P K P P = Mixed Equilibria circle6 Chemical equilibria with reactants and products that are all in the same phase are called homogeneous equilibria. circle6 Chemical equilibria with reactants and products that are in more than one phase are called heterogeneous equilibria. circle6 How do we deal with equilibria across different states?
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4 Activity circle6 For an ideal gas, it’s partial pressure ( P ) is equal to it’s activity ( a ). circle6 For a solute in dilute solution, a = [X]. circle6 For a pure solid or liquid, a = 1. A B C D w x y z + + C D A B equilibrium y z w x a a K a a = Example problem circle6 Calculate the equilibrium constant at 25 °C for the following reaction: 4( ) 8( ) 2( ) 2 ( ) 2CH S 2CS 4H S g s l g + + 4 2 CH H S 0.8 atm, 0.6 atm P P = =
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