chapter 10 slides

chapter 10 slides - Acids & Bases Chapter 10 CHEM 6B...

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1 Chapter 10 CHEM 6B Dr. DiPasquale CHEMICAL PRINCIPLES: Brønsted-Lowry c A proton is a hydrogen cation, H + . c An acid is a proton donor. c A base is a proton acceptor. c The Brønsted-Lowry theory of acids and bases involves proton transfer from an acid to a base and the rapid equilibrium established between the two in solution: ( ) 2 ( ) 3 ( ) ( ) HCl H O H O Cl aq l aq aq + + +
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2 Strong vs. Weak Acids/Bases c A strong acid is fully deprotonated in solution. c A weak acid is only partially deprotonated in solution. c A strong base is completely protonated in solution. c A weak base is only partially protonated in solution. ( ) 2 ( ) 3 ( ) ( ) HA H O H O A aq l aq aq + + + ( ) 2 ( ) 3 ( ) ( ) HA H O H O A aq l aq aq + + + ( ) 2 ( ) ( ) ( ) :B H O HB OH aq l aq aq + + + ( ) 2 ( ) ( ) ( ) :B H O HB OH aq l aq aq + + + Lewis Acids and Bases c A Lewis acid is an electron pair acceptor c A Lewis base is an electron pair donor c Protons (H + ) are Lewis acids. c Hydroxide (OH - ) and ammonia (NH 3 ) are Lewis bases. c Every Lewis base is also a Brønsted-Lowry base. c However, every Lewis acid is not necessarily a Brønsted-Lowry acid.
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3 CO 2 as a Lewis Acid c Carbon dioxide reacts with water to form carbonic acid: c The carbon atom of the CO 2 (the Lewis acid) accepts an electron pair from the oxygen atom of the H 2 O (the Lewis base). c
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chapter 10 slides - Acids & Bases Chapter 10 CHEM 6B...

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