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PSY1 Notes1 - Fields Within Psychology Fields Within...

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Unformatted text preview: Fields Within Psychology Fields Within Psychology 0. Physiological Psychology 1. Psychophysics (Sensation and Perception) 2. Quantitative (Math) Psychology 3. Animal Experimental Psychology 4. Human Experimental Psychology 5. Neuropsychology 6. Developmental Psychology 7. Personality Psychology 8. Social Psychology 9. Evolutionary Psychology 10. Industrial Psychology 11. Consumer Psychology 12. Clinical Psychology 13. Counseling Psychology 14. Educational and School Psychology Is the Brain Also the Mind? 15. Monism –physical and mental are one –Idealism – all is thought –Materialism – all is physical –Interactionism –Psychophysical Parallelism 16.Dualism – physical and mental are different aspects of reality Who Has Big Brains? 17. Brain weighs about 1400 g (~3 lb) in avg adult. 18. Taller people have bigger, heavier brains. 19. Males have bigger brains than females. 20. Across animal kingdom, brain size and weight are unrelated to intelligence. 21. Within humans, brain size and weight are weakly related to intelligence. 21. How Do We Study the Brain? 22. Clinical (patient) studies 23. Experimental studies 0. Invasive 1. Non­invasive Clinical Studies 24. Neuropatholgies: 25. Cerebrovascular accidents (CVA’s, strokes) 2. Thrombotic/embolic stroke 3. Ruptured aneurysms 4. Hemorrhagic stroke 26. Traumatic brain injury 27. Tumors, degenerative diseases 28. During neurosurgery 29. Neuropsychological testing Brain “Localization” 30. The brain has numerous parts, inter­connected by circular pathways. 31. Is there “localization of function”? 5. Strict localization view 6. “Mass action” view 7. Resolution: Specialization but not strict localization Major Hindbrain Areas and Functions Major Hindbrain Areas and Functions 32. Pons and Medulla 8. Protective reflexes 9. Infant (“pathological”) reflexes 10. Orienting reflexes 11. Cardiovascular, respiratory, digestive reflexes 33. Cerebellum 12. “Old” (inner) cerebellum – balance (linked to semicircular canals of ears and trochlear nerve that moves the eyeballs) 13. “New” (outer) cerebellum – rapid automatic movements, timing of movements and thoughts Major Midbrain Areas and Functions 0. Midbrain reticular formation 14. General arousal 15. Sleep / wake cycles 16. Pain perception 1. Superior colliculi (left and right) 17. Visual targeting – saccades (saccadic movements) 2. Inferior colliculi (left and right) 18. Auditory targeting Some Major Forebrain Areas and Functions Some Major Forebrain Areas and Functions 0. Basal forebrain (hypothalamus & thalamus) 19. Hypothalamus: Control of 20. Pituitary gland >> thyroid, adrenals, bone growth 21. Autonomic Nervous System (ANS), immune system 22. Hunger, thirst, body temperature and induction of fever (pyrogens) 23. Sexual orientation 24. Reward and punishment 25. Thalamus: sensory relay station 1. “Old cortex” 26. Limbic system – complex reaction patterns (“4 F’s”) 27. Basal ganglia 28. background postural (axial) movements 29. smooth pursuit eye movements 30. regulation of foreground/ background thinking (disrupted in OCD) Two Diseases Involving the Basal Ganglia 2. Parkinson’s Disease 31. Resting tremor 32. Rigidity 33. Slowed Movements 34. Confusion 3. Huntington’s Chorea 35. Involuntary writhing movements 36. Impaired speech/swallowing 37. Staggering gait 38. Depression, irritability 39. Short­term memory loss Some Major Forebrain Areas and Functions (Cont’d) Some Major Forebrain Areas and Functions (Cont’d) 4. “New cortex” (neocortex) 40. Complex perception 41. Strategic movements 42. Higher intellectual functions 43. Social (“Machiavellian”) intelligence Neocortical Lobes and Some General Functions 5. Occipital Lobe 44. Visual pattern recognition (Optical “grasping”) 6. Parietal Lobe 45. Complex visual/touch perception 46. (R) Body sense 47. (L) Arithmetic, left­right sense 7. Temporal Lobe 48. Hearing & Language decoding 49. Long­term memory 50. Face/object identification 8. Frontal Lobe 51. Strategic thinking 52. Social cognition 53. Short­term memory 54. Language/music production 55. Voluntary movements Left Parietal Lobe: Gerstmann Syndrome 9. Poor handwriting 9. 10. Left­Right confusion 11. Poor math skills 12. Cannot distinguish among one’s fingers Right Parietal Lobe: Neglect Syndrome Defects Common in Temporal­Lobe Damage 0. Long­term memory (esp. in the Hippocampus) 1. Face blindness: prosopagnosia 2. Facial expression identification (esp. in the amygdala) 3. Sometimes, violent outbursts 4. Language comprehension Epilepsy in Temporal Lobes (Complex Partial Seizure Disorder): Long­Term Personality Changes 5. 6. 7. 8. Overtalkative w/ compulsive writing Obsession with detail and meaningfulness of trivia Interpersonally viscous Hyperreligious w/ expanded sense of personal destiny 9. Hypermoral 10. Fetishism and sexual disinterest Frontal Lobes: Major Motor Areas Frontal Lobes: Primary Motor Area (the maps are dynamic) Frontal Lobes: Primary Motor Area (the maps are Brain Structures in Language 11. Broca’s Area 12. Wernicke’s Area Some Typical Effects of Prefrontal Damage 13. Reduced behavioral spontaneity (”flat affect”) 14. Similar pre vs. post IQ’s 15. Concrete verbalizations 16. Perseveration 17. Failure to sequence behavior (poor following of instructions) 18. Loss of strategic thinking 19. Pseudodepression 20. Pseudopsychopathy ...
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