PSY1 Notes4

PSY1 Notes4 - Conditioning Conditioning and and Learning...

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Unformatted text preview: Conditioning Conditioning and and Learning Learning 0. Aristotle (350 B.C.E.) – Laws of Association 0. 1. 2. Frequency Intensity Contiguity Foundations of Conditioning 1. British Empiricism 3. René Descartes (1650) – body as machine 4. John Locke (1690) – “tabula rasa” doctrine 5. David Hume (1750) – S-S building blocks 6. Robert Whytt (1750) – physiology of reflexes Ivan Pavlov Ivan (1849-1936) (1849-1936) 0. Lectures on the function of the principal digestive glands (1897) glands 1. Lectures on Conditioned Reflexes (1926) 2. “Wired-In Reflexes” Pavlov’s Reflex Formulation Pavlov’s 7. e.g., salivation, gag, orienting, limb withdrawal 8. occur unconditionally occur unconditionally 9. “unconditional reflexes” (US UR) “unconditional 10. Appear after specific experiences 11. occur conditionally occur 12. “conditional reflexes” (CS CR) 12. “conditional 3. “Psychic Reflexes” Applications of Classical (Pavlovian) Conditioning Applications 4. Phobias e.g., “Little Albert,” Watson & Raynor (1920) 5. Systematic desensitization 6. Aversive conditioning 0. Addictions 1. Obesity 2. Ego-dystonic homosexuality Operant Conditioning (Instrumental Learning) 7. Classical conditioning presupposes a passive creature. 8. Instead, animals act to change their environments. 9. Much of animal learning isn’t reflexive but adaptive and flexible. 10. Such adaptive learning is controlled by its consequences. Such consequences Thorndike’s Law of Effect (S---R) Consequence 11. An organism whose actions lead to a satisfying state of affairs is likely to repeat those actions. is 12. An organism whose actions lead to an “annoying” state of affairs is unlikely to repeat those actions. affairs Skinner’s View of Classical vs. Operant Conditioning 13. Elicited 14. Controlled by antecedents 15. Private (ANS) Vs. 16. Emitted 17. Controlled by consequences 18. Public (Striate muscles) 19. Shaping 20. Extinction 21. Discrimination 22. Reinforcement schedules Operant Conditioning Procedures Operant 13. CRF – continuous reinforcement 14. Partial reinforcement: 0. FR & VR – fixed & variable-ratio schedules 1. FI & VI – fixed & variable-interval schedules 23. Conditioned reinforcement 2. 3. 4. 5. Partial reinforcement effect Superstition Instinctive drift Operant conditioning of ANS responses Operant Conditioning Phenomena Extensions of Operant Conditioning Social policy and thought: 2. Thinking as verbal behavior 3. Free will as fiction (Beyond Freedom & Dignity, 1971) 4. Utopian social views (Skinner’s Walden Two, 1961) Utopian 1961) 5. Psychopathology as reinforcement of deviant behavior Some applications: 6. 7. 8. 9. Behavior modification Assertiveness training Biofeedback Programmed instruction ...
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This note was uploaded on 01/25/2011 for the course PSYCH 1 taught by Professor Fridlund during the Winter '08 term at UCSB.

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