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Unformatted text preview: Evolution and Behavior Evolution and Behavior Sir Charles Darwin 18091882 Darwin’s Main Contributions to Psychology 0. Continuity of life forms 1. Mental evolution 2. Sexology Voyage Aboard H. M. S. Beagle 18311836 Thomas Malthus 17661834 Malthus’s Theory of Population Charles Lyell 17971875 Premises of Natural Selection 0. Because resources are limited, organisms must necessarily battle for survival. 1. Those organisms that possess favorable characteristics in that environment will reproduce more; i.e., they are “fitter.” 2. Because of this differential reproduction, characteristics that are favorable in that environment will proliferate, whereas those that are unfavorable will decrease. 3. Reliable trends in natural selection constitute evolution by natural selection. Natural Selection 3. Evolution by Natural Selection Assumes: Differences among organisms (variability of traits); traits can be structures or behavior. 4.. Selection pressure(s) 4 5. A mechanism of inheritance 0. Lamarckism (useinheritance) for Darwin 1. Genetics after Darwin Evolution by Natural Selection: 0. Is random and contains no internal momentum. 1. Creates organisms suited only to the current environment, not “more perfect” creatures. 2. Is not substantiated by evidence of perfect design (the “Argument from Design”), but by the existence of useless vestigial structures. 3. Requires no grand design or Grand Designer. Annie Darwin 18411851 Darwin’s View of Humans and Primates Natives of Tierra del Fuego circa 1835 Kinds of Inherited Patterns of Behavior Taxis (movement toward or against a simple stimulus) Reflex Imprinting 0. Triggered in critical period Fixed Action Pattern (FAP’s) 1. Triggered by releasers 2. More flexible than once thought 3. Now sometimes called modal action patterns Displays Strategic Actions 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Kinds of Taxis Escape Reflex in the Cockroach Escape Reflex in the Cockroach Olfactory Imprinting Kinds of Inherited Patterns of Behavior Avian Fixed Action Pattern: Egg Retrieval Insect Fixed Action Pattern: Von Frisch’s Honeybee Dance Mammalian Fixed Action Pattern: Yawning Animal Displays: Cats in a Puzzle Box Preference for Juvenescence Neoteny in the Chimpanzee Neoteny in Human vs. Chimpanzee Neoteny in Mickey Mouse Darwin and Expression Feline Aggressive Display Human Display: Sneer Human Display: Smiling Primate Displays: Grimace Primate Displays: Dominant Aggression Animal Displays: Aggression in Monkeys ProtoLanguage: Vervet Monkeys Inheritance of Complex Behavior: MazeRunning Skill in Rats Aspects of Evolutionary Fitness Aspects of Evolutionary Fitness 6. Personal fitness 2. Direct reproductive prowess 7. Inclusive fitness 3. Assistance of kin’s reproduction 4. Leads to cooperative behavior 5. “Altruism” = genetic selfinterest (?) Cooperative Predation Cooperative Mating Cooperative Defense Cooperative Parenting: Family Life in Monkeys End ...
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This note was uploaded on 01/25/2011 for the course PSYCH 1 taught by Professor Fridlund during the Winter '08 term at UCSB.
- Winter '08