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operant - Operant Conditioning Compare and contrast the...

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Operant Conditioning Compare and contrast the four methods used to modify behavior in operant conditioning (positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, punishment, and response cost), giving original examples of how each can be used in the classroom. Include in your answer a discussion of the four schedules of reinforcement, describing the likely response pattern associated with each. Give original examples of how each can be used in the classroom. Developed by W. Huitt (1998)
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Operant Conditioning The major theorists for the development of operant conditioning are: Edward Thorndike John Watson B.F. Skinner
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Operant Conditioning Operant conditioning investigates the influence of consequences on subsequent behavior. Operant conditioning investigates the learning of voluntary responses. It was the dominant school in American psychology from the 1930s through the 1950s.
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Operant Conditioning Where classical conditioning illustrates S-->R learning, operant conditioning is often viewed as R-->S learning It is the consequence that follows the response that influences whether the response is likely or unlikely to occur again.
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Operant Conditioning The three-term model of operant conditioning (S--> R -->S) incorporates the concept that responses cannot occur without an environmental event (e.g., an antecedent stimulus) preceding it. While the antecedent stimulus in operant conditioning does not ELICIT or CAUSE the response (as it does in classical conditioning), it can influence its occurance.
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Operant Conditioning When the antecedent does influence the likelihood of a response occurring, it is technically called a discriminative stimulus. It is the stimulus that follows a voluntary response (i.e., the response's consequence) that changes the probability of whether the response is likely or unlikely to occur again.
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Operant Conditioning There are two types of consequences: positive (sometimes called pleasant) negative (sometimes called aversive)
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Operant Conditioning Two actions can be taken with these stimuli:
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