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Unformatted text preview: Setting the Stage for Behaviorism Began in the early 1900’s – early theories did not develop and use scientific methods – differences between observation and interpretation EdPsy 421 EdPsy 421 Sept. 2009 Assumptions
1. The lawful relationships between behavior and environment can only be found if behavioral properties and experimental conditions are carefully controlled. Data from experimental studies are the only acceptable sources of information about the causes of behavior. Human behaviors can be accounted for by a set of rules. 2. 3. EdPsy 421 EdPsy 421 Sept. 2009 Assumptions (con’t)
1. 2. 3. All species interact with the environment the same way Behavior must be considered at the individual and not the group level Learning is functionally related to changes in the environment EdPsy 421 EdPsy 421 Sept. 2009 Foundations Emphasized use of the scientific method – only reliable data could be used – behavior provides reliable data Definition: – Learning is a relatively permanent change in behavior. Objective – Uncover a set of principles to account for human learning EdPsy 421 EdPsy 421 Sept. 2009 Conditioning Paradigms Conditioning is mechanism for learning Conditioning pradigms follow the general structure of: some stimulus learner responds some reinforcer learning outcome
EdPsy 421 EdPsy 421 Sept. 2009 Reinforcement Reinforcement Reinforcer – stimulus that follows a response – the stimulus Increases the probability of a behavior occurring in the future Punishment – giving something negative; taking something positive – Is not equal and opposite of reinforcement EdPsy 421 EdPsy 421 Sept. 2009 Reinforcement Positive and Negative Reinforcers1 – Positive reinforcer – Negative reinforcer Desired Positive and Negative Reinforcement – Positive reinforcement Undesired – Negative reinforcement Give something desired (positive reinforcer) Take away something undesired (negative reinforcer) 1 Hint: ‘Reinforcer’ is a noun. It is a stimulus. EdPsy 421 EdPsy 421 Sept. 2009 Conditioning Paradigms
1. – – – Classical Conditioning Unconditioned stimulus ellicits response Response is a reflex Control transfers to Conditioned Stimulus EdPsy 421 EdPsy 421 Sept. 2009 Conditioning Paradigms (con’t)
1. – – – – – Instrumental Conditioning Stimulus is present Learner engages in trialanderror learning Response is voluntary, known behavior Reinforcement follows correct response Reinforcement strengthens association between stimulus and response EdPsy 421 EdPsy 421 Sept. 2009 Conditioning Paradigms (con’t)
1. Similar to Instrumental, but shaping replaces trialanderror Response is novel, involuntary behavior Operant Conditioning EdPsy 421 EdPsy 421 Sept. 2009 Thorndike’s Laws Thorndike’s Law of Exercise – With practice, associations are strengthened or weakened. – Practice makes perfect Law of Effect – Outcome weakens or strengthens associations – Reinforcement – Punishment revision Law of Transfer (associative shifting) – conditioned behaviors will occur under similar stimulus conditions – generalization Law of Readiness – Importance of prerequisite skills EdPsy 421 EdPsy 421 Sept. 2009 Common Principles Learning curve Reactions to Similar Stimuli – Generalization Give same response to different, but similar stimulus – Discrimination Don’t give same response to different stimulus Discriminates between two stimuli Extinction – Withholding of reinforcement Contiguity – Stimuli and responsesmust occur close in time EdPsy 421 EdPsy 421 Sept. 2009 ...
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This note was uploaded on 01/27/2011 for the course EDPSY 421 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '08 term at Pennsylvania State University, University Park.
- Spring '08