08_NonLinear_Change_030310 - HDFS 597K March 3, 2010...

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1 NON-LINEAR GROWTH: Tethering Method to Theory HDFS 597K March 3, 2010 HDFS 597K Applied Longitudinal Data Analysis Tethering Method to Theory Aligning Theory, Method & Data “… ideal longitudinal research is characterized by the seamless integration of a well-articulated theoretical model of change, an Data Theory appropriate temporal design, and a statistical model that is an operationalization of the theoretical model.” (Collins, 2006) Method Aligning Theory, Method, & Data Theory – A logically self-consistent framework for describing behavior • Hypotheses Models – A mathematical/formal structure where ideas collide with observations Æ Inferences regarding how well theory approximates reality Data – A selected set of observations – Multivariate/Longitudinal • Reality A Developmental Perspective (Baltes & Nesselroade, 1977, 1979) “Our primary objective as developmental psychologists is to describe or characterize the [ entity ] and to explain how and when the observed characteristics of the [ entity ] change over time.” Longitudinal Theory Longitudinal Methods Longitudinal Data 5 Objectives for Longitudinal Research (Baltes & Nesselroade, 1979) 1. Direct identification of intraindividual change 2. Identification of interindividual differences in intraindividual change 3. Analysis of interrelationships in behavioral change 4. Analysis of causes (determinants) of intraindividual change 5. Analysis of causes (determinants) of interindividual differences in intraindividual change 5 Steps in Longitudinal Research (McArdle, 2005) 0. Form some basic ideas of merging theory and data Pre-analysis: Describe the observed and unobserved longitudinal data Plot the data 1. Characterizing Intraindividual Changes 2. Interindividual Differences in Intraindividual Change Factorial Invariance: establish a common (across individuals and time) measurement base Growth Curve Modeling: characterizing developmental shapes Growth Curve Models with Covariates Multi-group Growth Curve Models (inc. Growth Mixture Models) group differences and predictors of individual differences in developmental scores and or shapes
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2 Step 0: Plot the Data Step 0: Form some basic ideas of merging theory and data Cortisol – a steroid hormone made in the adrenal glands – released in the body during stressed or agitated states – "stress hormone" – Functions: regulation of blood pressure and cardiovascular function • regulation of the body's use of proteins, carbohydrates, and fats Secretion increases in response to any stress in the body • physical (such as illness, trauma, surgery, or temperature extremes) • Psychological Dispersion (decreases) after stress • Indicator of healthy function of system • Lack of dispersion indicator system malfunction of failure – Normal levels in the bloodstream: 6-23 mcg/dl Time scale of changes??
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08_NonLinear_Change_030310 - HDFS 597K March 3, 2010...

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