Adeola00_environmentalism_ - Adeola / CROSS-NATIONAL...

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AMERICAN BEHAVIORAL SCIENTIST Adeola / CROS -NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL INJUSTICE Cross-National Environmental Injustice and Human Rights Issues A Review of Evidence in the Developing World FRANCIS O. ADEOLA University of New Orleans, Louisiana This article focuses on the issues of environmental injustice and human rights violations across nations. Using existing documents, the patterns of the transnational toxic waste trade and natural resource exploitation and the bases of global environmental injustice are explored. The dependency/world-system perspective on toxic waste exports and imports and the environmental justice framework are used to analyze transnational toxic waste dumping schemes and resource exploitation in underdeveloped nations. With an emphasis on the Movement for the Survival of the Ogoni People, available evidence suggests that environ- mental activists, powerless indigenous subpopulations, and other minorities face the danger of environmental injustice and human rights abuse, especially under authoritarian regimes. The need for stronger international norms protecting human rights to a safe and sound envi- ronment is emphasized, and it is argued that environmental injustice needs to be included as a component of human rights protocols. Policy implications of theoretical analyses are offered. Over the past two decades, considerable attention has been focused on envi- ronmental justice issues at the local, national, and international levels (see Weinberg, 1998). Social scientists have documented crucial characteristics of the world capitalist system shifting environmental burdens disproportionately to marginalized communities and less developed nations (Bunker, 1985; Buttel, 1987; Schnaiberg, 1975; Stratton, 1976). The right to a safe environment has been advocated as an essential aspect of fundamental human rights (Nickel, 1993; Thorme, 1991). However, several salient research questions remain unre- solved. Among these questions are (a) Does a disproportionate environmental burden constitute a violation of basic human rights? (b) Is there substantial 686 Author’s Note : I would like to thank the reviewers and the editor for their helpful comments and sug- gestions on an earlier draft of this article. The views, interpretations, ambiguity, and credits or limi- tations in the text, however, are the sole responsibility of the author. A version of this article was delivered at the annual meeting of the Southwestern Social Science Association held in New Orleans, Louisiana, March 26-29, 1997. AMERICAN BEHAVIORAL SCIENTIST, Vol. 43 No. 4, January 2000 686-706 © 2000 Sage Publications, Inc.
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evidence concerning environmental injustice across nations? and (c) What are the bases of global environmental injustice? These salient questions will be addressed in this article. This article primarily focuses on international environmental injustice
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This note was uploaded on 01/31/2011 for the course WOMEN'S S 240 taught by Professor Cole during the Spring '07 term at University of Michigan.

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Adeola00_environmentalism_ - Adeola / CROSS-NATIONAL...

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