Chapter 4 Carbon Chemistry

Chapter 4 Carbon Chemistry - 1/10/2010 1 Carbon Chemistry...

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Unformatted text preview: 1/10/2010 1 Carbon Chemistry 2010: D. Julian Carbon Molecules 2010: D. Julian Organic chemistry Organic chemistry is the study of compounds that contain carbon. Organic compounds range from simple molecules to colossal ones. Most organic compounds contain hydrogen atoms in addition to carbon atoms. Because carbon has 4 electrons in a valence shell that could hold 8, it has little tendency to gain or lose electrons, and instead tends to form covalent bonds with up to 4 other atoms. 2010: D. Julian 1/10/2010 2 Carbon bonds In molecules with multiple carbons, each carbon bonded to four other atoms has a tetrahedral shape. However, when two carbon atoms are joined by a double bond, the molecule has a flat shape. Name Molecular Formula Structural Formula Ball-and-Stick Model Space-Filling Model (a) Methane 2010: D. Julian (b) Ethane (c) Ethene (ethylene) Valences of elements in organic molecules Carbon can form organic molecules with many other elements, but the most common are H, O and N. 2010: D. Julian Carbon skeletons The diversity of carbon backbones produce molecules with different chemical properties, even when the only other atom is hydrogen. Ethane Propane 1-Butene 2-Butene 2010: D. Julian (c) Double bonds (d) Rings Cyclohexane Benzene Butane 2-Methylpropane (commonly called isobutane) (b) Branching (a) Length 1/10/2010 3 Space-filling model of a protein 2010: D. Julian Hydrocarbons Long carbon backbones with a lining of hydrogen atoms. These C H bonds store large amounts of energy. Fat droplets (stained red) 2010: D. Julian (a) Mammalian adipose cells (b) A fat molecule 100 m Functional groups Functional groups are the components of organic molecules most commonly involved in chemical reactions. The number and arrangement of functional groups give each molecule its unique properties . 2010: D. Julian 1/10/2010 4 Seven major functional groups The seven functional groups that are most important in the chemistry of life: 1. Hydroxyl group 2. Carbonyl group 3. Carboxyl group 4 Amino group 4. Amino group...
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This note was uploaded on 01/31/2011 for the course BSC 2010 taught by Professor Bowes during the Spring '08 term at University of Florida.

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Chapter 4 Carbon Chemistry - 1/10/2010 1 Carbon Chemistry...

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