Chapter 5- Marcomolecules

Chapter 5- Marcomolecules - 1/12/2010 Macromolecules 2010:...

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1/12/2010 1 Macromolecules © 2010: D. Julian Large biological molecules Cells are made from four classes of large biological molecules: 1. Carbohydrates 2. Lipids 3. Proteins 4 Nucleic Acid 4. Nucleic Acids Within cells, small organic molecules are joined together to form larger molecules. Macromolecules are large molecules composed of thousands of covalently connected atoms. © 2010: D. Julian Macromolecules are polymers A polymer is a long molecule consisting of many similar building blocks These small building block molecules are called monomers Three of the four classes of life’s organic molecules are polymers: Carbohydrates Proteins Nucleic acids © 2010: D. Julian
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1/12/2010 2 Synthesis and breakdown of polymers A condensation reaction, or more specifically a dehydration reaction, occurs when two monomers bond together through the loss of a water molecule. Enzymes speed up the dehydration process. Polymers are disassembled to monomers by hydrolysis , a reaction that is essentially the reverse of the dehydration reaction. © 2010: D. Julian Figure 5.2 Diversity of polymers Each cell has thousands of different kinds of macromolecules Macromolecules vary among cells of an organism, vary more within a species, and vary even more between species An immense variety of polymers can be built from a small set of monomers © 2010: D. Julian Sugars © 2010: D. Julian
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1/12/2010 3 Sugars Monosaccharides have molecular formulas that are usually multiples of CH 2 O Glucose (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) is the most common monosaccharide Monosaccharides are classified by The location of the carbonyl group (as aldose or ketose) The number of carbons in the carbon skeleton © 2010: D. Julian Structures of some sugars Glyceraldehyde Ribose Glucose Galactose Hexoses (C6H12O6) Pentoses (C5H10O5) Trioses (C3H6O3) Note that you do not need to memorize these structures for this course. © 2010: D. Julian Dihydroxyacetone Ribulose Fructose Linear and ring forms of sugars Though often drawn as linear skeletons, in aqueous solutions many sugars form rings. © 2010: D. Julian (a) Linear and ring forms (b) Abbreviated ring structure
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1/12/2010 4 Making disaccharides from monosaccharides Maltose Glucose Glucose (a) Dehydration reaction in the synthesis of maltose 1–4 glycosidic linkage © 2010: D. Julian (b) Dehydration reaction in the synthesis of sucrose Glucose Fructose Sucrose 1–2 glycosidic linkage Polysaccharide storage: plants Starch , a storage polysaccharide of plants, consists entirely of glucose monomers. Plants store surplus starch as granules within chloroplasts and other plastids. Starch Chloroplast Mitochondria Glycogen granules © 2010: D. Julian (b) Glycogen: an animal polysaccharide Glycogen Amylose (a) Starch: a plant polysaccharide Amylopectin 0.5 μm 1 μm Polysaccharide storage: animals Glycogen is a storage polysaccharide in animals.
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This note was uploaded on 01/31/2011 for the course BSC 2010 taught by Professor Bowes during the Spring '08 term at University of Florida.

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Chapter 5- Marcomolecules - 1/12/2010 Macromolecules 2010:...

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