7 Data (1)

# 7 Data (1) - Dr. Harvey A. Singer School of Management...

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© 2006 by Harvey A. Singer 1 OM 210:  Statistical Analysis for  Management Data Types, Measurement Scales, and Sources Dr. Harvey A. Singer School of Management George Mason University

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© 2006 by Harvey A. Singer 2 Topics List What is the sample data. Data and data classifications. Measurement scales. Where to get data? Data sources. Why work with data? Statistical methods. Descriptive statistics. Statistical inference. Computerized statistics.
© 2006 by Harvey A. Singer 3 Data Elements, variables, observations, etc. Qualitative and quantitative data. Cross-sectional and time series data.

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© 2006 by Harvey A. Singer 4 Data Data are the facts and figures that are collected, summarized, analyzed, and interpreted for presentation. The data collected in a particular study are referred to as the data set or database . The elements are the entities on which data are collected.
© 2006 by Harvey A. Singer 5 Variables and Values A variable is a characteristic or quantity (or quality) of interest of an element. In itself, it is a name or description. A variable takes on different specific values for different measurements or counts. Value = measurement or count. The set of measurements collected for a particular element is called an observation . All the values collected for a set of related variables. The total number of data values in a data set is the number of elements multiplied by the number of variables.

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© 2006 by Harvey A. Singer 6 Terminology Quantity Database Term Matrix Term Practical Term Element (entity) Record Row Observation Variable Field, attribute Column Characteristic Value Value Cell Measurement Row is the entity: describes an individual in terms of the variables heading the columns across the row.
© 2006 by Harvey A. Singer 7 Data Classifications Data is broadly classified as: Qualitative vs. quantitative. Qualitative data is further classified as nominal vs. ordinal. Quantitative data is further classified as: Discrete vs. continuous. Interval vs. ratio. Cross-sectional vs. time-series. The statistical analysis that is appropriate depends on the type of data, according to its classification.

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© 2006 by Harvey A. Singer 8 Data Classifications By Process By Scale Data Qualitative Quantitative nominal ordinal discrete continuous interval ratio
© 2006 by Harvey A. Singer 9 Qualitative Data Descriptive of a quality or an attribute. Qualitative data consist of labels, names, or symbols used to identify an attribute of each element (a variable of an observation). • Data can be words or symbols assigned as values to the variable. Qualitative data can be either numerical or non-numerical.

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## This note was uploaded on 02/01/2011 for the course MARKETING 301 taught by Professor Hopner during the Spring '11 term at George Mason.

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7 Data (1) - Dr. Harvey A. Singer School of Management...

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