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CRIM EXAM ONE STUDY GUIDE Criminology The science or discipline that studies crime and criminal behavior The field of criminology concentrates on forms of criminal behavior the causes of crime and the definition of criminality and the societal reaction to criminal activity Related areas can include juvenile delinquency and victimology Shows a greater interest in the causal explanations of crime Emerged with the essay on crimes and punishments Emerged as a discipline in the 1960s Deviance Aka deviant behavior May refer to a broad range of activities that the majority in society may view as eccentric, dangerous, annoying, bizarre, outlandish, gross, abhorrent and the like Refers to behavior that is outside the range of normal societal toleration Relative to time, place, and persons Crime Violations of criminal law Mala Prohibita Acts that are bad because they have been prohibited Examples are traffic violations, gambling and infractions of various municipal ordinances might serve as examples Are violations because the law defines them as such Tended to be seen as making life more predictable Mala in Se Acts bad in themselves Forbidden behaviors for which there is a wide scale consensus on the mores for prohibition Some of these include murder, rape, assault, and Durkheim Suggested that a crime may be a normality, a positive product, a functional necessity in a healthy society Was a sociologist Created the theory of functional necessity of crime proposes the wrongdoing or crime serves to force societal members to react, condemn, and thus establish the borders of and reconfirm societal values Crime in the US Criminalistics The scientific evaluation of physical evidence Three stages of the progression of knowledge Theological Metaphysical Scientific
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Undercriminil ization The feeling that the law fails to prohibit acts that many consider to be mala in se Overcriminiliz ataion The over extension of criminal law Characteristic s of criminal law 1. It is assumed by political authority 2. It must be specific, defining both the offense and the prescribed punishment 3. The law is uniformly applied (equal punishment and fairness for all) 4. The law contains penal sanctions enforced by punishments administered by the state Felonies A punishment committed that refers to offenses punishable by a year or more in a state or federal prison Misdemeanors Less serious offenses punished by less than a year in jail To be considered a crime… The act is prohibited by law and contains legally prescribed punishments NO CRIME WITOUT LAW A criminal act (actus reus ( the act itself, or the physical element)) must have taken place Social harm of conscious-injury must be to the state or people The act is preformed intentionally mens rea (criminal intent or guilty mind) The voluntary misconduct must be causally related to the harm Consensus model
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