crimexam1 studyguide

crimexam1 studyguide - Criminology Study Guide Test 10/8...

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Criminology Study Guide Test 10/8 Introduction to Criminology Criminology is: o The study of crime o The study of who commits crime o The study of who crime is committed upon (victims) o The study of why people commit crime o The study of how people commit crime Theory is: o Part of an explanation designed to help people understand something o Set of interrelated propositions designed to explain a particular phenomenon. o Every theory has a background assumption A background assumption is: An assumption about the basics of social order Attached to a person’s sentiment A part of a theory that cannot be tested Proposition is: o A way of relating a particular phenomenon to the world of information, beliefs, attitudes that make up an intellectual atmosphere of a people at a particular time and place. Correlation is: o When things tend to vary systematically in relation to each other o Necessary for a causation statement o Example: the majority of criminals are men Causation is: o When one thing necessarily leads to another o Example: Being a man causes criminality o For causation we need: Correlation Theoretical rationale Correct time sequence Absence of spuriousness Scientific Theories are: o One kind of a natural explanation in that they seek explanations of phenomena in this world. o Statements about the relationships between observable phenomenons. o Theories that can be falsified by evidence and research. o Modern criminology is based in scientific theory. Standards of Theory: o How we evaluate theories o A Theory should… Explain past facts that we know about crime
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Predict the future Be testable Be broad in scope Be logically consistent Be simple Be policy relevant. o We need theory to explain the facts about a crime o Theory broad scope: logically consistent. History of Criminological Theory Trajectory of ideas about crime and justice is o Embedded in the historical context in which they are popular Ideas about crime and justice o Tend to cycle in and out of popularity Popularity in time period context Theories die and come back. Spiritual explanations of crime o Crime is the result of someone or a community, angering otherworldly powers. (Early 17 th Century) o Thomas Aquinas Natural Law: humans are inheritably good, want to follow natural law, but only go against when they have a possession from the devil. Kings and queens had divine spiritual power Classical explanations of crime o 18 th century / enlightenment o Criminals are no different than non-criminals; crime is a choice that people make, usually as the result of a cost benefit analysis. o
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crimexam1 studyguide - Criminology Study Guide Test 10/8...

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