PSYC200 EXAM ONE STUDY GUIDE

PSYC200 EXAM ONE STUDY GUIDE - PSYC200 EXAM ONE STUDY GUIDE...

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PSYC200 EXAM ONE STUDY GUIDE The spectrum of knowing Beliefs (personal truth) Knowledge (collective truth) Truth (actual truth) Errors in logical reasoning Error=A->B, B->C, THUS A->C NOT NECESSARILY TRUE Statistics A method for dealing with data; a tool for organizing and analyzing numerical facts or observations “A number calculated on sample data that quantifies a characteristic of the sample” Statistical Notion Examples=x,y,xy,x+1,x(x) Order of Operations PEMDAS Data A collection of measurements or observations made on subjects Variable A characteristic that takes on different values for different individuals in a population or a sample; something that varies Constants A characteristic that does not change its value in a given context Independent variable n a.k.a. I.V. n A variable that is examined in order to determine its effects on an outcome of interest n Often (but not always) manipulated by the researcher Consists of at least two levels, or categories Dependent variable n a.k.a. D.V. n An outcome of interest that is being observed and measured in order to assess the effects of the independent variable n The actual observations or measurements that you record Discrete Variable n A variable that consists of separate, indivisible categories; can assume only a finite number of values between any two points n a.k.a. Categorical or Qualitative variables n No values can exist between the categories Continuous Variable n A variable where there are an infinite number of possible values that fall between any 2 observed values n a.k.a. Quantitative or Numeric variables n Can be pictured as a number line without gaps between neighboring points Examples:
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Criterion Variable n An outcome of interest that is being observed and measured in order to assess the effects of the predictor variable n The actual observations or measurements that you record Predictor Variable n A variable that is examined in order to determine its effects on an outcome of interest n Often (but not always) measured rather than manipulated n Continuous in nature Population The collection of all people, objects, events, or observations sharing one or more specified characteristics Sample A subset of individuals selected from a population, usually intended to reflect or represent the population in a study n Used because collecting observations from an entire population is usually time-consuming, costly, impractical and/or unfeasible Parameter A value that describes a characteristic of a population Example: The average height of of the entire UMD student population Convenience sampling Selecting individuals for a sample that are easily accessible Biased Sample nA sample that consistently over-represents some parts of the population and under-represents other parts of the population nAre often not representative of the population and can lead to misleading conclusions about the population Random Sample Every possible sample of size “n” has the same chance of being selected. Sampling Errors
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This note was uploaded on 02/01/2011 for the course PSYC 200 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '08 term at Maryland.

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PSYC200 EXAM ONE STUDY GUIDE - PSYC200 EXAM ONE STUDY GUIDE...

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