PSYC200 EXAM ONE STUDY GUIDE
The spectrum of
knowing
•
Beliefs (personal truth)
•
Knowledge (collective truth)
•
Truth (actual truth)
Errors in logical
reasoning
•
Error=A>B, B>C, THUS A>C
•
NOT NECESSARILY TRUE
Statistics
A method for dealing with data; a tool
for organizing and analyzing numerical facts or
observations
“A number calculated on sample data that quantifies
a characteristic of the sample”
Statistical Notion
Examples=x,y,xy,x+1,x(x)
Order of
Operations
PEMDAS
Data
A collection of measurements or observations
made on subjects
Variable
A characteristic that takes on different values
for different individuals in a population or a sample;
something that varies
Constants
A characteristic that does not change its
value in a given context
Independent
variable
n a.k.a. I.V.
n A variable that is examined
in order to determine its effects on
an outcome of interest
n Often (but not always) manipulated by the researcher
Consists of at least two levels, or categories
Dependent
variable
n a.k.a. D.V.
n An outcome of interest that is being observed and measured in
order to assess the effects of the independent variable
n The actual observations or measurements that you record
Discrete Variable
n A variable that consists of separate, indivisible categories; can
assume only a
finite number of values between any two points
n a.k.a. Categorical or Qualitative variables
n No values can exist between the categories
Continuous
Variable
n A variable where there are an infinite number of possible values
that fall
between any 2 observed values
n a.k.a. Quantitative or Numeric variables
n Can be pictured as a number line without gaps between
neighboring points
Examples:
This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.
View Full DocumentCriterion Variable
n An outcome of interest that is being observed and measured in
order to assess the effects of the predictor variable
n The actual observations or measurements that you record
Predictor Variable
n A variable that is examined
in order to determine its effects on
an outcome of interest
n Often (but not always) measured rather than manipulated
n Continuous in nature
Population
The collection of all people,
objects, events, or observations sharing one
or more specified characteristics
Sample
A subset of individuals selected from a
population, usually intended to reflect or represent
the population in a study
n Used because collecting observations from an
entire population is usually timeconsuming,
costly, impractical
and/or unfeasible
Parameter
A value that describes a characteristic of a population
Example: The average height of of the entire UMD student
population
Convenience
sampling
Selecting individuals for a sample that are
easily accessible
Biased Sample
nA sample that consistently overrepresents some
parts of the population and underrepresents
other parts of the population
nAre often not representative of the population and
can lead to misleading conclusions about the
population
Random Sample
Every possible sample of size “n” has the same
chance of being selected.
Sampling Errors
This is the end of the preview.
Sign up
to
access the rest of the document.
 Spring '08
 staff
 Standard Deviation, Variance, representative

Click to edit the document details