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BSCI205 Final Review Shortened

BSCI205 Final Review Shortened - Water pollution is any...

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Water pollution is any contaminant in the water that makes it unfit for use Water pollution is responsible for many illnesses Water becomes so polluted because it is a universal solvent (everything dissolves in it) There are point and nonpoint sources of water pollution Point sources are discharges of pollutants at a specific location such as an oil spill from a tanker Nonpoint sources are discharges over large areas such as construction sites or farmland Point sources are easier controlled than nonpoint Two sources of acid waste are mining coal and burning coal Mining coal – water drained through abandoned mines becomes contaminated with sulfuric acid Burning coal – nitrate and sulfur dioxide gas go into the air 1. One type of water pollutant is acid waste -These are harmful to land and water -Harmful to land bc it is corrosive to our buildings and changes soil chemistry -Harmful to water bc it lowers the pH 2. Organic waste is another type of water pollutant -The two sources of acid wastes are human sewage and waste from livestock -BOD (biological oxygen demand) -Amount of O2 in the water required for bacteria to break down wastes -Normal BOD is 2-5 -Places with high BOD include slaughterhouses, vegetable processing plants, and sewage treatment plants -Water with little O2: Anoxic -Water with no O2: hypoxic -The avg. American uses 13,000 gallons of water to get rid of waste -Kansas has nothing fit for drinking or swimming 3. Phosphates are another type of water pollutant -Phosphates are harmful because they lead to an increase in algae, which increases bacteria, which decreases O2, which kills animals (ecosystem effect) 4. Another type of water pollutant is pollutant from agriculture such as (inorganic fertilizers, organic fertilizers, sediments, and pesticides and herbicides) -Inorganic: nitrogen, blue baby syndrome -Organic: excess manure goes into water systems -Sediments: covers spawning grounds and fill reservoirs -Pesticides and Herbicides: runoff contaminates water 5. Another type of water pollution is thermal -This comes from factories -The consequences include higher water temp which lowers the oxygen content bc the hotter the water the less gas it can hold, changes in respiration bc every 10 degrees hotter respiration doubles, life cycle changes of organisms bc certain temperatures are indicators for migration or spawning, stress/death of organisms if pushed passed tolerance point, species composition changes (less to eat), sedimentary pollution so light cant penetrate the water, and synthetic chemicals can catch on fire
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So, the types of water pollutants are acid wastes, organic wastes, phosphates, agriculture, and thermal Controlling water pollution includes sewage treatment with three steps 1. Screen 2. Using living organisms to break down wastes 3. Denitrifying bacteria Pollution causes over enriched waters that eventually become anoxic and the loss of diversity in ecosystems The clean water act made 66% of waters in US safe for fishing and swimming
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