BSCI205 Midterm Review

BSCI205 Midterm Review - C) Ecosystem Organization 1....

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C) Ecosystem Organization 1. Abiotic components: water, temperature, light, chemicals 2. Biotic Components: living components a. Autotrophs: primary producers i. Trees, algae, plants ii. Exhibit photosynthesis b. Heterotrophs: consumers i. Herbivores: only eat plants: rabbits, deer ii. Carnivores: eat meat/other animals: snakes, cats iii. Omnivores: eat both plants and animals: bears c. Decomposers: bacteria and fungi 3. Ecological succession: the replacement of one biological community with another a. Trends: when a community dies, another takes over b. Climax community: replaced by more of the same species c. Primary succession: occurs where life begins where there was no life before i. Lichens and mosses-grasses-shrubs-trees d. Secondary succession: life comes to a place where there was life before (all the vegetation has been destroyed) i. Are soil and nutrients there ii. Weeds-shrubs-trees How Ecosystems Maintain Stability (#3) A) Definition: a. The structure of an ecosystem persists over time b. Stability is maintained by constant change B) Only two variables: a. Energy b. Matter C) Open system: a. Definition: system in which energy and matter are exchanged with the surroundings that system is in b. Examples: An animal’s body D) Closed System: a. Definition: system in which energy but not matter is exchanged b. Example: the earth E) Stability is achieved by: a. Dynamic Steady State: IN AN OPEN SYSTEM i. What goes in is equal to what goes out ii. Our body is an example b. Dynamic Equilibrium: IN A CLOSED SYSTEM i. What goes in is equal to what goes out ii. The earth is an example
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F) Homeostasis: steady state a. Homeostatic: the ability to maintain a constant state G) Systems controlled by feedback a. Feedback: the reaction of a system to change that in turn effects the pace of further change b. Negative Feedback: i. Minimizes change ii. Increases stability 1. Example: predator-prey relationship 2. Example: furnace (keeps temperature stable) c. Positive Feedback: i. Amplifies change ii. Decreases stability 1. Example: Snow on temperature 2. Example: in CO2 - in temp - in respiration - in CO2 The Movement of Energy Through Ecosystems (#4) A) Energy 1. Definition: the capacity to do work 2. Types of energy: mechanical, radiant, thermal, chemical, etc a. Calorie is used to measure energy 3. Two major forms: a. KINETIC: energy in motion i. Bouncing ball b. POTENTIAL: energy that is stored i. Fossil fuels ii. Water in a reservoir held by a dam iii. Food B) First Law of Thermodynamics: 1. Definition: takes energy to get energy, cannot be created or destroyed 2. Examples: a. Amount of energy in a gallon of gas = amount of energy released when that gas is burned C) Second law of Thermodynamics: (ENTROPY) 1. Definition: all energy transfers are inefficient and heat is always a byproduct of energy conversions 2. Examples: An engine will only heat up if you apply energy, but will spontaneously lose heat to cool down (no energy needed) D) The movement of energy through ecosystems
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BSCI205 Midterm Review - C) Ecosystem Organization 1....

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