Lecture Notes Test 1

Lecture Notes Test 1 - CRIM notes Lecture 1 -Thinking about...

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CRIM notes Lecture 1 -Thinking about crime is not value neutral—the way we think about crime, criminals, and response to them is a direct result of the way that we think about human nature/behavior -What determines/constrains human nature? -To what extent is human nature malleable? -How does human nature vary between people and populations? -Is the content of human nature inherently good, inherently evil, or a blank slate? -Your view on human nature shapes what you define as crime, who you think are criminals, and what you think the appropriate response is -Philosophy, psychology, sociology, biology all offer different understandings of human action and behavior -These are also all fields that deal with human nature Plato’s Dualism -Human nature is made up of two competing forces -Dualism theory—the mental and physical are different forces interacting in one person -Intellectual Soul—resident in the human head -Appetite—beast, resident in the belly and genitals -Soul keeps appetite under control Which usually wins out? -Appetite—natural human instinct, but if appetite always won there would be chaos -Not always a dichotomy, becomes more complex between intellectual soul/appetite Aristotle’s Rational Man—man uses reason and possesses rationality -Reasoning is how man is meant to achieve his full potential -Man is Passionate animal, Political animal, Reasoning animal John Locke -Tabula Rasa—In An Essay Concerning Human Understanding , Locke proposed that humans are born with a blank slate, nurturing and teaching are how we learn the rules, people learn from their experiences in the world Free Will vs Determinism
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-Free will—do rational agents exercise control over their actions and decisions? -Religious—Divine entity (God) knows our choices, but we still have to make that choice -Scientific— -In criminology, earliest example of free will theory has become known as Classical school -Classical school gave birth to our current criminal justice system Hard Determinism—future events are necessitated by past events combined with laws of nature -3 types -Theological determinism—pre-determined steps -Biological/psychological determinism—actions determined by your makeup -Sociological determinism—what you’re doing, who you are with, your environment -Punishment and Hard determinism—to punish individuals who cannot control their behavior would be the ultimate cruelty Soft Determinism—takes a moderate position between free will and hard determinism -Human beings do control a significant portion of their behavior, but not all -Impossible to predict or control all human behavior -Different people will make different decisions when put in the same situation No human nature? -Sociologists and anthropologists often argue that there is no such thing as
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This note was uploaded on 02/01/2011 for the course CCJS 105 taught by Professor Mcgoin during the Spring '08 term at Maryland.

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Lecture Notes Test 1 - CRIM notes Lecture 1 -Thinking about...

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