Study Guide Test 1

Study Guide Test 1 - CCJS105 Exam 1 Study Guide 3 Lecture 1...

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CCJS105 – Exam 1 Study Guide 3 Lecture 1 -Plato’s Dualism says that human nature is made up of competing forces and that there is an intellectual soul and an appetite or beast -Aristotle’s Rational Man says that man possesses reasoning and rationality and that we are a passionate, political, and reasoning animal -John Locke believed in tabla rasa, which says our mind is a blank slate at birth and that nurturing and teaching are how we learn -Free will says that we have control over what we do -Hard determinism says that future events are necessitated by past events (combined with the laws of nature) and HD’s say that it is unfair to punish people because they cannot control their behavior ~There are three types of HD and they are theological, biological/psychological, and sociological -Soft determinism takes a more moderate approach and says that humans control a significant amount of behavior but not all (impossible to predict or control all behavior) -An approach that says there is no human nature claims that it is solely our culture and environment that shapes who you are (Margaret Mead research in New Guinea) Lecture 2 -Deviance is violations of cultural norms that can be either formally enacted rules or informal violations of social norms *A deviant act becomes a crime when it is deemed harmful or dangerous and punished -Social norms are rules that people use to determine appropriate or inappropriate values, beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors -Schools of thought for defining crime include the consensus, conflict, and interactionist view ~Consensus view says that crimes are behaviors that all of society agrees are bad ~Conflict view says that crimes are behaviors that ruling class says are bad ~Interactionist view says that those in social power impose their values on society -The criminal justice system consists of three parts, which are the police, criminal courts, and corrections ~Police: The first US organized police force was created in 1837. Criminologists study the actions, thoughts, and motivations of police. Police use discretion, which is the use of judgment to decide what actions to take ~Criminal courts include prosecutors, defense attorneys, judges, and juries where the judges and juries can decide guilt or innocence ~Corrections include probation, parole, jail, prison, alternative sentence, community service, etc *US has highest incarceration rate among industrialized democracies *Prison population growth has gone up almost 400% in last 30 yrs (due to new laws and regulations being put in place)
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Study Guide Test 1 - CCJS105 Exam 1 Study Guide 3 Lecture 1...

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