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Unformatted text preview: CCJS 105 CCJS 105 Introduction to Criminological Theory
Nadine Frederique, PhD Candidate Boys of Baraka Boys of Baraka Remember the characters
Richard & Romesh (brothers) Devon – wanted to be a preacher Where was Baraka School? Why did it close? Montrey – wanted to be a chemist What did the boys do while at Baraka? Recap Social Process Theories Recap Social Process Theories Social Process theories describe the process of interaction between individuals and society
Differential Association Labeling Theory Social Learning (in text book) Social Control Theories are process theories also Control Theories Control Theories 3 trends in criminology that made control theories popular Reaction against labeling and conflict perspectives The rise of criminology as a discipline – increase in government funding SelfReport Surveys Control Theories Control Theories Propositions
Humans are naturally motivated to do crime No need to explain motivation Back to Free Will Control theories ask what prevents people from delinquency?
controlling forces Delinquency occurs because of a weakness of Control Theories Control Theories Introduction
Function of norms in society is to maintain conformity and order Social stability depends on expectations we hold towards one another
Everyone, including gang delinquents, is Ex. Rules of the road bound to dominant value system of society Control Theories Control Theories Stakes in Conformity – Jackson Toy (1957) – how much a person has to lose when he or she breaks the laws? Youth who do well in school have hi stakes in conformity Youth who do poorly in school have less to lose and have low stakes in conformity. Control Theories Control Theories F. Ivan Nye (1958) Social control – family is the source of social control for adolescents The Family Socializes the young Provides supervision of behavior Controls behavior of people of all ages Control Theories Control Theories
F. Ivan Nye (1958) Social control • Types of Controls direct control = punishments and rewards indirect control = affectionate identification with noncriminals internal control = conscience or sense of guilt. Needs Satisfaction = if needs are met, there is no reason for crime Gresham Sykes & David Matza Gresham Sykes & David Matza Techniques of Neutralization – One becomes “free” for delinquent acts through these techniques
Denial of Responsibility Denial of Injury Denial of Victim Condemnation of the Condemners Appeal to Higher Loyalties Gresham Sykes & David Matza Gresham Sykes & David Matza Drift – limbo between conventional lifestyle and criminal lifestyle
Techniques used = drift Juveniles drift into delinquency almost accidentally Juveniles need to “make things happen” Hirschi’s Social Control Theory Hirschi’s Social Control Theory Hirschi’s Social Control Theory (1969) Causes of Delinquency
Goals of Hirschi’s Book
Test it with original data State of theory of social control Critique Strain and Cultural Deviance Theories Hirschi’s Social Control Theory Hirschi’s Social Control Theory Hirschi’s Social Control Theory (1969) Causes of Delinquency Everyone is equally motivated to be delinquent People who have bonds to family, school, and peers less likely to commit delinquent acts Hirschi’s Social Control Theory Hirschi’s Social Control Theory Hirschi’s Social Control Theory (1969) Causes of Delinquency Important elements Attachment to parents, peers, or school Commitment to conventional lines of action Involvement in conventional activities Belief in a common value Hirschi’s Social Control Hirschi’s Social Control Summary of Findings
Attachment, Commitment & Belief seem to be supported by the empirical evidence But Social Control theory underestimates the importance of delinquent peers Social Control theory over states the importance of involvement in conventional activities ...
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This note was uploaded on 02/01/2011 for the course CCJS 105 taught by Professor Mcgoin during the Spring '08 term at Maryland.
- Spring '08