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Unformatted text preview: CCJS 105 CCJS 105 Introduction to Criminology
Nadine Frederique, PhD Candidate Recap From Last Week Recap From Last Week Control Theories and Propositions Stakes in Conformity – Toby Controls – Nye Sykes & Matza – Techniques of Direct, Indirect, Internal & Needs Satisfaction Neutralization Control Theories Control Theories Propositions
Humans are naturally motivated to do crime No need to explain motivation Back to Free Will Control theories ask what prevents people from delinquency?
controlling forces Delinquency occurs because of a weakness of Gresham Sykes & David Matza Gresham Sykes & David Matza Techniques of Neutralization – One becomes “free” for delinquent acts through these techniques
Denial of Responsibility Denial of Injury Denial of Victim Condemnation of the Condemners Appeal to Higher Loyalties Gresham Sykes & David Matza Gresham Sykes & David Matza Drift – limbo between conventional lifestyle and criminal lifestyle
Techniques used = drift Juveniles drift into delinquency almost accidentally Juveniles need to “make things happen” Hirschi’s Social Control Theory Hirschi’s Social Control Theory Hirschi’s Social Control Theory (1969) Causes of Delinquency
Goals of Hirschi’s Book
Test it with original data State of theory of social control Hirschi’s Social Control Theory Hirschi’s Social Control Theory Hirschi’s Social Control Theory (1969) Causes of Delinquency Everyone is equally motivated to be delinquent People who have bonds to family, school, and peers less likely to commit delinquent acts Hirschi’s Social Control Theory Hirschi’s Social Control Theory Hirschi’s Social Control Theory (1969) Causes of Delinquency Elements of the social bond Attachment to parents, peers, or school Commitment to conventional lines of action Involvement in conventional activities Belief in a common value Hirschi’s Social Control Theory Hirschi’s Social Control Theory Hirschi’s Social Control Theory (1969) Causes of Delinquency Elements of the Social Bond
Attachment to: The Family The School Peers Hirschi’s Social Control Hirschi’s Social Control Summary of Findings
Attachment, Commitment & Belief seem to be supported by the empirical evidence But Social Control theory underestimates the importance of delinquent peers Social Control theory over states the importance of involvement in conventional activities Social Control Theory Social Control Theory Critiques of Social Control
Motivation?? Nature of attachments – can they change over time? Reciprocal relationships – low attachments can lead to increases Interaction between bonds – attachment & belief? Attachment & commitment? Social Development Social Development Theories Social Development Theories Social Development Theories
Even if the onset of criminality can be explained by a single biological, personal trait or sociological factor, some other factors must explain its change, development and continuation or termination. Social Development Social Development
Social Development Propositions Development begins at birth and occurs within a social context. Human development occurs on many levels:
Socialization psychological, biological, familial, interpersonal, cultural, societal and ecological Social Development Theory Social Development Theory Social Development Propositions (cont)
Integration combine various points of view on the process of development Longitudinal – seek to understand both increases and decreases in rates of offending over the life span. The transition from childhood to adulthood. Social Development Theories Social Development Theories Development Theories – view criminality as a dynamic process, influenced by a multitude of individual characteristics, traits and social experiences over the life span. Modern Development Ideas Modern Development Ideas Life Course researchers examine Trajectories – pathway or line of development, which is marked by transitions Transitions – specific life events Turning Points – significant change in the direction of one’s trajectory Modern Development Ideas Modern Development Ideas Sampson & Laub’s Age Graded Theory Propositions of Age Graded Theory Delinquency is more likely to occur when an individual’s bond to society is weak or broken (Hirschi’s Social Control) Continuity and Change of criminal behavior over the life course Modern Development Ideas Modern Development Ideas Sampson & Laub’s Age Graded Theory Continuity – Prior behavior predicts future behavior Change Turning points Ex. Leaving home, having children, getting divorced, graduating from school etc. Turning points can move a person away from delinquency Modern Development Ideas Modern Development Ideas Sampson & Laub’s Age Graded Theory Social Capital – positive relations with individuals and institutions that are life sustaining. Social Capital is enhanced by Education Good Job Enriching personal connections Good marriage and family life ...
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This note was uploaded on 02/01/2011 for the course CCJS 105 taught by Professor Mcgoin during the Spring '08 term at Maryland.
- Spring '08