4-29-10 Social Development Theories

4-29-10 Social Development Theories - CCJS 105 CCJS 105...

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Unformatted text preview: CCJS 105 CCJS 105 Introduction to Criminology Nadine Frederique, PhD Candidate Social Development Social Development Theories Social Development Theories Social Development Theories Social Development Theories Seek to explain Onset Escalation Desecalation Desistance Social Development Theories Social Development Theories Propositions: Development begins at birth Development occurs at many levels Integration of different perspectives to understand development Longitudinal research – need repeated observations to understand the process Criminality is dynamic – changes over time Early Developmental Ideas Early Developmental Ideas Rolf Loeber & Marc LeBlanc (1990) Criminologists have a too simplistic view of criminality Dynamic process – criminality changes Criminal careers beginning, middle and end and changes along the way. How it unfolds? Begins? why it is sustained? and how it ends? Early Developmental Ideas Early Developmental Ideas Rolf Loeber & Marc LeBlanc (1990) 3 developmental pathways to delinquency Authority Conflict Pathway Covert Pathway Overt Pathway Modern Development Ideas Modern Development Ideas Life Course Perspective Based on criminal career ideas of a typical lifecycle: Childhood – criminality is uncommon Late adolescence & adulthood – sporadic delinquency By age 30 or 40 criminal behavior disappears Modern Development Ideas Modern Development Ideas Life Course researchers examine Trajectories – pathway or line of development, which is marked by transitions Transitions – specific life events Turning Points – significant change in the direction of one’s trajectory Modern Development Ideas Modern Development Ideas Sampson & Laub’s Age Graded Theory Propositions of Age Graded Theory Delinquency is more likely to occur when an individual’s bond to society is weak or broken (Hirschi’s Social Control) Continuity and Change of criminal behavior over the life course Modern Development Ideas Modern Development Ideas Sampson & Laub’s Age Graded Theory Argue that juvenile delinquency is directly explained by background structure & family process factors Background Structural Factors Household crowding Family disruption Poverty, Mobility, Criminality of Parents Modern Development Ideas Modern Development Ideas Sampson & Laub’s Age Graded Theory Family Process factors Lack of supervision Erratic and threatening discipline Parental rejection / hostility towards boy Boys emotional rejection of parents Modern Development Ideas Modern Development Ideas Sampson & Laub’s Age Graded Theory Continuity – Prior behavior predicts future behavior Change ­ Turning points Ex. Leaving home, having children, getting divorced, graduating from school etc. Turning points can move a person away from delinquency Modern Development Ideas Modern Development Ideas Sampson & Laub’s Age Graded Theory Social Capital – positive relations with individuals and institutions that are life sustaining. Social Capital is enhanced by Education Good Job Enriching personal connections Good marriage and family life Modern Development Ideas Modern Development Ideas Sampson & Laub’s Age Graded Theory Empirical Test Re­analyzed the Glueck Data – 500 Delinquent & Non Delinquent boys 1930’s Kids involved in delinquency frequently had trouble In school and at home and had a large number of friends who were also involved in delinquency Modern Development Ideas Modern Development Ideas Sampson & Laub’s Age Graded Theory Empirical Test All the family process variables had significant effects on delinquency Mother’s discipline strongest predictor Emotional ties between Mother & Father’s harsh & erratic punishment One structural factor had significant effect on delinquency Residential mobility ...
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This note was uploaded on 02/01/2011 for the course CCJS 105 taught by Professor Mcgoin during the Spring '08 term at Maryland.

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