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INTRODUCTIONS AND RHETORICAL HISTORY Hauser said that rhetoric was conscious awareness, reason, reflection, and action Hauser said that vision and goals lead to motivation Hauser said that rhetoric should entertain, instruct, and persuade Hauser believed that rhetoric has a set of rules Overall definition of rhetoric is that rhetoric is a translation process that takes the familiar to the novel The eight characteristics of rhetoric are omnipresent, occasional discourse, addressed to an audience, practical discourse, and mode of thinking -Omnipresent says that rhetoric is apparent everywhere (even in daily conversation) -Occasional Discourse says that it is called in to being by what is around use (situational) -Addressed to an audience meaning that it serves a purpose such as persuasion or informative -Practical Discourse is concerned with issues of that day -Mode of Thinking is suited to inducing and coordinating social action -Concerned with civic life and cultural world – public, not a private practice -Shapes and is shaped by values which creates a hierarchy -Is a process not a thing with an audience-speaker relationship and dialectical tension (involves opposition between two interacting forces) There are three approaches to rhetorical communication which are prescriptive, scientific, and critical -Prescriptive deals with good speaking practices -Scientific is if it’s something you want to test, hypothesis driven -Critical deal with themes and values; breaks down speeches by critiquing and analyzing for good and bad techniques (we used prescriptive and critical in class) -Prescriptive is the foundational approach, Greece, thought rhetoric was magic that would make an audience do what the speak wanted -Sophists were the 1 st communication consultants and were paid to teach rhetoric, treated rhetoric as a business and were looked down upon for this by philosophers -Prescriptive elements of Speech are objection of production (the speech) and procedure (the steps we take to make that speech) Product and Procedure There are three genres or occasions of rhetoric which are deliberative, forensic, and epideictic -Deliberative advocates for change and effects the future
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-Forensic provides evidence of past occurrences, accuses or defends someone -Epideictic is ceremonial speaking that is used to “show” the audience, demonstrative Procedure consists of 5 cannons of rhetoric , which are invention, arrangement, style/expression, delivery, and memory -Invention is the formation and construction of the idea/argument, THREE STEPS ~The three steps are intellection (pre-thought), discovery (gathering research), and judgment (what goes in and what is left out of argument) -Arrangement is the partitioning or organization of the argument (classical vs. modern) ~Modern: intro, thesis, body, and conclusion -Style/Expression is the language (plain, middle, or grand) ~Plain: simple ~Middle: more complexity (ex. Clinton) ~Grand: elevated and grandiose
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