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Unformatted text preview: Lear ning (Action Taken) Scanning (Dat a Collection) I nt er pretation Dat a Given Meaning COMM250 Test 2 Review Questions * Up to 4 will be cumulative; at least 21 will be based on new material 49) According to Grice, what are the general characteristics of conversations that allow him to theorize a logic of conversation? Tries to discover how conversations are organized. Conversations are rational, cooperative efforts, and participants recognize in them purposes and direction. Grice believes the regularities in conversation arise from rules that participants follow, and he proposes his logic of conversation as a kind of specification of these rules. Proposes that conversation is organized or informed by a general principle and several maxims. 50) How does Grice articulate what he calls the Cooperative Principle? What importance does Grice attach to the Cooperative Principle in his logic of conversation? Cooperative principle is the most general and most essential to rational conversation. - “Make your conversational contribution such as is required, at the stage at which it occurs, by the accepted purpose of direction of the talk exchange in which you are engaged” 51) According to Grice, what are conversational maxims and how are they related to his Cooperative Principle? Specific maxims and sub maxims that will generally yield results consistent with the Cooperative Principle…they may be distinguished into 4 categories: Quantity, Quality, Relation, and manner 52) Consider Grice's list of the Maxims of Quantity, Quality, Relation, and Manner. Explain in operational terms what it would mean to follow each of the maxims. Quantity: (1) make your contribution as informative as required (2) Do not make your contribution more informative than is required Quality: Supermaxim: “Try to make your contribution one that is true” (1) Do not say what you believe to be false (2) Do not say that for which you lack adequate evidence Relation : Be relevant Manner: (1) Avoid obscurity of expression (2) Avoid ambiguity (3) Be brief… avoid using too many words (4) Be orderly 53) What are the distinct ways identified by Grice in which one might violate (or not follow) maxims? There are 4 ways that maxims may not be followed 1) Quiet Violation: secretly failing to follow maxims, ex- “I didn’t know there was a loaded gun under my car seat” 2) Opting out: openly refusing to cooperate with maxims, ex- “My lips are sealed” 3) Clashing: failing to meet one maxim in order not to fail to meet another, has to break one maxim in order to avoid breaking another (usually more important) maxim “She’s majoring in…something in Arts and Humanities” 4) Flouting: blatantly breaking a maxim in order to get a conversational partner to look for a meaning other than what was literally said, ex- “Yeah, I saw the game: she was a tiger in the second half” 54) According to Grice, what are the kinds of conversational implicatures? Identify and give an example of each kind.implicatures?...
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- Spring '08
- Implicature, Paul Grice, Weick, ideal speech situation