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ESS2 7 - Tolerance and Dependence of Cannabis Cannabis Can...

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Unformatted text preview: Tolerance and Dependence of Cannabis Cannabis Can Cannabis be Addicting? Can Until recently, most thought that no Until physical dependence developed from using cannabis using Very mild symptoms, if any Receptors and Neurotransmitters Neurotransmitters In 1988 and 1990, receptor sites in the In brain were found that were specifically reactive to THC (Howlett, Evans & Houston, 1992). (Howlett, Brain is affected in specific ways by the Brain use of cannabis use Developing a Tolerance Develops as a result of cannabinoidiinduced down regulation and nduced desensitization of brain cannabinoid receptors Each time you smoke, these receptors Each become less sensitive to the effects of the THC the Must smoke more to have same effects “Originally, when we first got it, we could smoke, say, two bong loads and be just totally stoned whereas now we have to keep continuously smoking just to keep the high going, even with the higher­potency stuff.” ­ 24-year-old recovering marijuana user Dependence Dependence Body functioning is altered by marijuana Body use Uncomfortable symptoms do occur when Uncomfortable drug use is withdrawn (Budney and Hughes, 2006; Copersino et al., 2006; Haney, 2005). Copersino These symptoms are not just These psychological, as we thought before psychological, Addiction Addiction Research has shown that cannabis can Research cause a true addiction syndrome cause Physical and emotional dependence Want and Need “I ain’t gonna say I can quit anytime. But if I had to stop, I could stop. I ain’t gonna say I could quit. I can’t go cold turkey just like that. I could go maybe three days without and then I smoke a joint. And then maybe I go like three or four days without, and then maybe I’ll smoke a joint, but that’d take some work.” ­ 33-year-old chronic marijuana user Dependence Dependence More potent, higher levels of THC Taking “fewer puffs” of cannabis with a Taking higher level of THC still causes tolerance to develop quite quickly to Wider availability Withdrawal Symptoms Withdrawal Occur in at least 50% of regular users Occur who discontinue using who Begin within 48 hours of last drug use Begin Usually last between 2 and 10 days, but Usually can last much longer can Similar to nicotine withdrawal Common Withdrawal Symptoms Symptoms Restlessness Irritability Cravings Cravings Anxiety Depressed mood Reduced food intake Nausea Sleep Disturbances Less Common Withdrawal Symptoms Symptoms Anger Aggression Strange Dreams Treatment for Dependence Treatment Rise in number entering treatment since Rise 1980 1980 Self-referrals Self-referrals Legal referrals for minors Psychotherapy to treat underlying issues Depression Depression Abstinence and Relapse Prevention Prevention Psychosocial interventions Motivational enhancement Motivational Development of coping skills Education of the drug Peer support Can be difficult because much of society Can still accepts the use of cannabis still ...
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