PSY1 1 - Introduction to Psychology Alan J. Fridlund, Ph.D....

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Unformatted text preview: Introduction to Psychology Alan J. Fridlund, Ph.D. Neuroscience Fields Within Psychology Physiological Psychology Experimental Psychophysics (Sensation and Perception) Quantitative (Math) Psychology Animal Experimental Psychology Cognitive Psychology Developmental Psychology Personality Psychology Social Psychology Evolutionary Psychology Industrial Psychology Consumer Psychology Neuropsychology Applied Clinical Psychology Counseling Psychology Educational and School Psychology Human Brain Is the Brain Also the Mind? Monism physical and mental are one Idealism all is thought Materialism all is physical Dualism physical and mental are different aspects of reality Interactionism Psychophysical Parallelism Human Brain Who Has Big Brains? Weighs about 1400 g (~3 lb) in avg adult. Taller people have bigger, heavier brains. Males have bigger brains than females. Across animal kingdom, brain size and weight are unrelated to intelligence. Within humans, brain size and weight are weakly related to intelligence. Species Comparisons of Brain Sizes Human Brain Case How Do We Study the Brain? Humans Only Clinical (patient) studies Humans and Non-humans Experimental studies Invasive Non-invasive (Neuroimaging) Clinical Studies Neuropathologies: Cerebrovascular strokes) Thrombotic / embolic stroke Ruptured aneurysms Hemorrhagic stroke Traumatic brain injury Tumors, degenerative diseases During neurosurgery under local anesthesia Neuropsychological testing The brain has numerous parts, interconnected by circular pathways. Strict localization view Resolution: Specialization but not strict localization Old Localization View: -1850) New Localization View: Neuroimaging (1980-present) CT <> MRI <> PET Scan Electron Brain Tomography (EBT) Scanning Electron Brain Tomography (EBT) Scanning Major Brain Segments F Forebrain M Midbrain H Hindbrain (S.C.) Head Tail Human Brain Development Neurogenesis Human Neural Development (~6 Gestational Months Old) Hindbrain Pons Medulla Cerebellum Major Hindbrain Areas and Functions Pons and Medulla Protective reflexes Orienting reflexes Cardiovascular, respiratory, digestive reflexes Cerebellum balance (linked to semicircular canals of ears and trochlear nerve that moves the eyeballs) rapid automatic movements, timing of movements and thoughts Some Hindbrain Reflexes Babinski Reflex Rooting & Moro Reflexes Patellar Tendon Reflex Some Infant Reflexes in Detail Rooting/Sucking Positive When cheek stroked child turns head toward side touched. Strongest during first 2 months. Disappears at 3-4 months. Sudden loud noise causes abduction of arms with elbow flexion, hands clenched. Should disappear by 4 months. Infant will grasp anything placed in hand. Touching sole of foot will cause grasping motion of toes. Should disappear by 3 months. Palmar grasp reflex will gradually become voluntary. When head is quickly turned to one side, arm and leg will extend on that side. Opposite arm and leg will flex. Should disappear by 3-4 months. Moro's (Startle) Grasp Palmar Plantar Tonic Neck Positive Positive Positive Pull-to-Sit Some head lag Positive Head lag common until 3-4 months. Great toe flares and other toes spread when outer edge of sole is stroked. Should disappear about 12 months. When back is stroked beside spinal column, the infant will move hips toward side stimulated. Infant held so sole touches surface, flexion and extension of leg resembling walking. Should disappear by 3-4 weeks. When object is placed in mouth, the infant will push it out with tongue. Trunk Incurvature Stepping Positive Positive Extrusion Positive Prenatal Infant Reflexes: Darwinian Grasp Reflex Newborn Brain Function Midbrain S I S I Midbrain Reticular Formation Superior and Inferior Colliculi Major Midbrain Areas and Functions Midbrain reticular formation General arousal Sleep / wake cycles Pain perception Superior colliculi (left and right) Visual targeting saccades Inferior colliculi (left and right) Auditory targeting Forebrain Some Major Forebrain Areas and Functions Thalamus Hypothalamus Basal forebrain (hypothalamus & thalamus) Hypothalamus: control of Pituitary gland >> thyroid, adrenals, bone growth Autonomic Nervous System (ANS), immune system Control of hunger, thirst, body temperature and induction of fever (pyrogens) Sexual orientation Reward and punishment Thalamus: sensory relay station Hypothalamic Control of the Autonomic Nervous System Hypothalamus and Pituitary Gland Actions of the ANS Sympathetic vs. Parasympathetic Branches Some Major Forebrain Areas and Functions Limbic system Complex reaction Basal ganglia background postural (axial) movements Smooth pursuit eye movements regulation of foreground/ background thinking Old Cortex Brain Systems and Reward Old Cortex Basal Ganglia Two Diseases Involving the Basal Ganglia Resting Tremor Rigidity Slowed Movements Confusion Michael J. Fox Involuntary movements Impaired speech/swallowing Staggering gait Depression, irritability Short-term memory loss Woody Guthrie Some Major Forebrain Areas and Functions Neocortex) Complex perception Strategic movements Higher intellectual functions intelligence Lobes of the Neocortex Frontal Parietal Temporal Occipital Neocortical Lobes and Some General Functions Frontal Lobe Strategic thinking Social cognition Short-term memory Language/music production Voluntary movements Parietal Lobe Complex visual/touch perception (R) Body sense (L) Arithmetic, L/R sense Temporal Lobe Hearing & Language decoding Long-term memory Face/object identification Occipital Lobe Visual pattern recognition Occipital Lobe: Visual Feature Detector Cells Occipital Lobe Left Parietal Lobe Defect: Gerstmann Syndrome Poor handwriting Left-right confusion Poor math skills Cannot distinguish Left Parietal Lobe Right Parietal Lobe Defect: Neglect Syndrome Right Parietal Lobe Defects Common in Temporal Lobe Damage Temporal Lobe Long-term memory (esp. in the Hippocampus) Face blindness: prosopagnosia Facial expression identification (esp. in the Amygdala) Sometimes, violent outbursts Language comprehension Epilepsy in Temporal Lobes (Complex Partial Seizure Disorder): Long-Term Personality Changes Overtalkative w/ compulsive writing Obsession with detail and meaningfulness of trivia Interpersonally viscous Hyperreligious w/ expanded sense of personal destiny Hypermoral Fetishism and sexual disinterest Frontal Lobe Frontal Lobe Frontal Lobes: Major Motor Areas Frontal Lobes: Map of Primary Motor Area (Note: The maps are dynamic) Prefrontal Area of Frontal Lobes Frontal Lobe Prefrontal Area Prefrontal Area and Cognition Prefrontal Lobotomy Some Typical Effects of Prefrontal Damage Concrete verbalizations Perseveration Failure to sequence behavior (poor following of instructions) Loss of strategic thinking Pseudodepression Pseudopsychopathy Language: Major Brain Areas Brain Structures in Language Language and the Brain Cerebral Hemispheres Corpus Callosum Effects of Hemispherectomy Contralateral Control Dermatomes: Bodily Coverage of Spinal Nerves Cervical Thoracic Lumbar Sacral Effects of Spinal-Cord Damage Paralysis ANS Dysreflexia Cranial Nerves (12 pair) Olfactory Optic Oculomotor Trochlear Trigeminal Abducens Facial Auditory Glossopharyngeal Vagus Hypoglossal Spinal Accessory Nerves Controlling the Face Contralateral Control in Vision Brain Circulation: Cerebral Vasculature Brain Circulation: Cerebrospinal Fluid Simple Neuron (Motoneuron) Dendrites Cell body Neuronal membrane Axon Axon hillock Axonal membrane Axonal branches Terminal boutons (Axon terminals) Synapse Synapse = Pre-Synaptic Membrane + Post-Synaptic Membrane + Synaptic Cleft Neurons and Glial Cell (Stained) Measuring the Action Potential Voltages Inside the Neuron as It Fires Destabilization Potential Down the Neuronal Membrane Myelination by Glial Cells Probable Functions of Glial Cells Possibly, a slow second signal system (calcium waves), running in parallel, and interacting, with neurons Blood-brain barrier Support structure during neurogenesis Myelin sheaths Neurotrophic functions Cross Sections of Myelin Sheaths Myelination In unmyelinated axons, action potentials travel ~1 meter / sec. In myelinated axons, action potentials travel 12-120 meter/sec. Myelination occurs only in vertebrates, which move faster than invertebrates. Myelination works via saltatory conduction (hopping across nodes of Ranvier). Myelination continues until ~age 20, with later myelination occurring most in prefrontal area. Myelination is destroyed in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and other demyelinating diseases. Exocytosis: Neurotransmitter Release Neurotransmitters and Receptors Blockade of Serotonin Reuptake by Prozac Some Major Neurotransmitters Acetylcholine (ACH) Norepinephrine (NE) Epinephrine (E) Dopamine (DA) Serotonin (5HT) GABA Glutamate Substance P Endorphins Some Ways that Drugs Can Affect Neurotransmission Mimicking neurotransmitters Blocking reuptake of neurotransmitters Blocking destruction of neurotransmitters + Facilitating receptors for neurotransmitters Destroying neurotransmitters Blocking receptors for neurotransmitters + OR - Affecting second messengers Common Drugs / Medications that Affect Neurotransmission Aspirin blocks substance P and causes analgesia Cocaine, Ritalin block reuptake of dopamine and causes ANS arousal, euphoria Curare blocks acetylcholine (Ach) receptors and causes paralysis Heroin, Oxycontin analgesia mimic endorphins and causes Risperdal, Zyprexa THC block dopamine and serotonin block reuptake of serotonin (Prozac, Zoloft, Paxil) Alcohol, Xanax, Klonopin, Valium facilitate GABA transmission and reduces anxiety ...
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This note was uploaded on 01/25/2011 for the course PSYCH 41855 taught by Professor Fridlund during the Winter '10 term at UCSB.

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