Psych Review

Psych Review - TheStoryofPsych 21:49 Terms and Concepts...

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The Story of Psych 21:49 Terms and Concepts Structuralism: early school of psych that used introspections to explore the structural elements of the human mind o Introduced by Titchener, Wundt’s student Functionalism: focuses on how our mental and behavioral processes function - how they enable us to adapt, survive and flourish o William James Behaviorism: the view that psych should be an objective science that studies behavior without reference to mental processes Humanistic Psychology: historically significant perspective that emphasized growth potential of healthy people and the individual’s potential for personal growth o Carl Rodgers and Abraham Maslow o Importance of having our need for love and acceptance satisfied Cognitive Neuroscience: interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition (including perception, thinking, memory, and language) Psychology: science of behavior and mental processes Nature-nurture issue: controversy over the relative contributions of genes and experience on psychological traits Natural Selection: Nature selects traits that best enable an organism to survive and reproduce. o Charles Darwin Levels of Analysis: differing complimentary views, from biological to psychological to social-cultural, for analyzing any given phenomenon o Together it forms biopsychosocial approach which considers the influence of biological, psychological, and social-cultural factors. Subfields: o Basic Research: pure science, to increase scientific knowledge base o Applied Research: solve practical problems o Counseling Psychology: Assists people with problems in living and in achieving a greater well-being o Clinical Psychology: assess and treat mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders
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Thinking Critically 21:49 Key Concepts Hindsight Bias: The tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it Critical thinking: thinking that doesn’t blindly accept arguments and conclusions. It examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence and assesses conclusions Overconfidence: humans tend to think that they know more than they do
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Research Strategies 21:49 Key Concepts
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Research Strategies 21:49 Scientific Method: Self-correcting method for asking questions and observing  answers o Operational definition: statement of procedures used to define research  variables o Replication: repeating essence of research study, usually with different  participants in different situations, to see whether basic findings extend to  other participants and circumstances Case Study: Observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in  the hope of revealing universal principles Survey: a technique that asks people to report their behavior or opinions Naturalistic observation: observing and recording behavior in naturally  occurring situations
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Psych Review - TheStoryofPsych 21:49 Terms and Concepts...

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