I. The Trouble With Tea, Concluded (from last time)C. Trade Good Substitutions--Opium; anxious to hang on to metals, but also wanting to trade for tea in China.European Presence in India to 1739; many trade posts in southern indiaSecond half 18thcentury; Britain dominate in India (Bengal Area); most of opium traded to china comes from India.English East India Company slowly assert dominance; by 1853, majority of India under control.Increase control of opium production industry; local labour, but in charge.Despite their asserted dominace, the company was rocky (scandals, bankruptcy, and eventually pushed out of china trade in 1830)Replaced by smaller companies, eventually banned from China in general.First half of 1800’s to late 1800’s; opium imports are expanding rapidly. Opens up and continues strong.D. Hidden Costs of Tea; not a victimless crime.--colonialism; tea is a central part; tea built a market that gave motives for Europeans to expand into the region to continue trade.--opium addition (4-12 million people, by 1840, and growing) (out of 400 million)- ChinaConclusion (from last time)--Taste for tea in Western Europe expanded pretty quickly; changed from elite product to something for everyone--connects to activities of East Indies Companies; --connects to relations with China--connects to hidden costs almost unimaginable--complete reordering of both European and Asian lives.II. The Trouble with OpiumThe Canton System (now Guangzhou); largly controlled by Chinese policy makers and cannot be controlled by Europeans.When Europeans do come in, there are strict rules; can only trade in port of Canton--Location; Pearl River delta (Zhujiang)--single port commerce system, 1750s-1840s; Chinese had significant control of flow of goods. European traders have no right no negotiate prices within this port.Had buildings to offload goods into and factories to store and produce goods; physical, weak presence.