Sex, Violence, & Crime

Sex, Violence, & Crime - CJ274 Review for Final Definition...

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CJ274 Review for Final • Definition of and types of computers crime and examples of each type: -Computer crime: any act involving a computer that may be prosecuted under criminal law -Types of computer crime: 1. Computers as the instrument of crime: used to facilitate a traditional crime in a high-tech manner ex: stalking, harassment, online auction fraud 2. Computer as the target of the crime: offender attempts to alter, steal or damage the hardware, software, or data ex: trespassing, tampering, theft of data 3. Computer is incidental to the crime but an important source of evidence ex: drug dealer’s client list, communication with a predator •Effects of cyberstalking: 1. First-order effects- directly impacts victim a. Affective health b. Social health c. Resource health d. Cognitive health e. Physical health f. Reduced capacity 2. Second order effect- impact on victims social and institutional networks 3. Third order effects- direct impact on the members of those networks •Offender and victim profiles for cyberstalking and cyberbullying 1. D’Ovidio: -The offender: 80% male, 74%white, Average Age 24 (Max 53, Min 10) 26% juveniles under 16, 91% no past arrests -The victim: 52% female, 85% white, average age 32 (max 62, min 10) 2. Alexy: 3.7% of college student were victim of cyberstalking -Males more likely to be cyberstalked -No significant difference in age or race -Stalker more likely to be former lover or acquaintances 3. Li: -Victims: 61% white, 59% female, 50% above average grades, 88% use internet at least 4/month, 50% also bully, 16% been CB, 31% CBV -Offenders: 69% white, 52% male, 56% average grades, 100% at least 4/mo, 85% been BV, 27% have been a CBV, 29% been a CB •Types of cyberstalking and the techniques used by offenders to harass -D’ovidio: 92% used only one method, most often email 79%, IMs 13% 1. Email/ Direct Connect stalking- private interaction 2. Internet Stalking- takes place in a public forum (chatroom, network site) most likely to spill over into physical world a. Stalking by proxy- offender establishes false user profile that directs
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unwanted communication 3. Computer stalking- exploits the internet and operating system to take control of computer (requires some technical knowledge) 4. Internet assisted stalking- internet used to gather info on the victim that help them engage in traditional forms of stalking •Challenges faced by law enforcement in fighting cyberstalking -Technical features of the Internet and procedural problems -Jurisdiction, differences in statutory definitions of stalking -Out of date and missing account information from ISPs -Anonym zing tools - Consists of repeated individual behaviors that individually may not constitute criminal offences -Stalking may be perceived by some as part of a relationship -There is no unique profile of stalkers and it is difficult to predict which stalkers will
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This note was uploaded on 01/25/2011 for the course CJ 274 taught by Professor D'ovidio during the Spring '10 term at Drexel.

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Sex, Violence, & Crime - CJ274 Review for Final Definition...

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