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# study sheet - Deductive Reasoning 1 Definition Conclusions...

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Deductive Reasoning 1. Definition: Conclusions that follow with certainty from their premises. 2. Rule of inferences in the logic of the conditional: a. Modus ponens : Infer the consequent of the conditional if we are given the antecedent. Given if A then B and proposition A, we can infer B (Valid deduction). b. Modus tollens : If we are given A implies B and that B is false, then we can infer that A is false (Valid deduction). 3. Invalid deductions: a. Affirmation of the consequent : Given B is true, infer A is true. b. Denial of the antecedent : Given A is false, infer B is false. **People are only able to show high levels of logical reasoning modus ponens . 4. Wason Selection Task: a. When presented with neutral material in the Wason selection task, people have particular difficulty in recognizing the importance of exploring if the consequent is false. b. When participants take the perspective of detecting whether a social rule has been violated, they make a large proportion of logically correct choices in the Wason card selection task. c. Oaksford and Chater explains that behavior in the Wason card selection task can be explained if we assume that participants select cards that will be informative under a probabilistic model. Inductive Reasoning 1. Definition: The conclusion does not necessarily follow from the premises. 2. Inductive reasoning is relevant to many aspects of everyday life: doctor trying to diagnose the cause of a set of symptoms. 3. In choosing instances to test a hypothesis, people often focus

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on instances consistent with their hypothesis, and this can cause difficulties if their hypothesis is too narrow. Decision Making 1. Subjective Utility: The value that we place on \$\$ is not linear with the face value of the money. a. When it comes to a point when one has enough money and that there really isn’t much difference for them between 1 million dollars and 2.5 million dollars. b. Properties: I. The graph is curvilinear such that it takes more than doubling in the amt of money to double its utility. II. Steeper in the loss region than in the gain region. c. Subject probability: Not identical with the objective probability. Very low probabilities are overweighed relative to high probabilities . 2. Framing Effects: People’s decisions vary, depending on where they perceive themselves to be in the utility curve. a. Example: If a store offers \$5 discount off of \$15, the person is likely to make an effort to go to the other store, but not likely if it’s \$5 off of \$125 item. 3. When there is no clear basis for making a decision, people are influenced by the way in which the problem is framed. Problem Solving 1. The nature of problem solving: a. Example: Kohler’s chimps – 3 essential features that qualify as problem solving.
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