B. Subject Matter of Modern Psychology

B. Subject Matter of Modern Psychology - -E.g one...

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Subject Matter of Modern Psychology - Animals and Humans - Peripheral and Central - Mind and Behavior Structuralists => Humans Behaviorists => pigeons and rats Empirical => Peripheral and Central (mixed) The Goals of Science - Description - Prediction - Explanation Empirical data - Experience is our empirical past - Our 5 physical senses are empirical data Naturalistic observation - Known otherwise as field research Advantages - The approach is to go into their natural environment and look into an one-way glass and you can know about the natural behavior. - Can observe in natural setting. - Exercise no experimental controls and no interference, unobtrusive. - Principal of indeterminacy - If you measure something, you change it. But NO never is part of the measurement. - We can know if its real, not artificial, because it is in our natural environment Disadvantages - There is no experimental control, all of the causes to the behavior is guesswork Experimentation
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- A variable controlled, isolated one cause one effect situation.
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Unformatted text preview: -E.g. one independent variable, illumination, causes a dependent variable pupil size to change. However, sound and attention can also change pupil size, therefore, we must eliminate anything affecting behavior. For example, install a sound-proof booth.-NO is never used Advantages-Determines the cause Disadvantages-Artificial situation. Only can be observed in the lab, not the real world.-A natural stimulus is not present, recreated environments are not real enough. Caution: Boundary conditions-Looks at stereotyped, fixed action-Good control, independent variable-But, conditions held in research may not be conditions in generalization-Behavior stamped into species, e.g. carnivorous beetle attacks tadpoles. Prediction is that beetle is hungry, uses visual perception to catch tadpole. However, in reality, it is not a visual response, but a chemical response, the essence of tadpole in water induces the beetle to perform that specific behavior....
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