HR Test One Study Guide_Summer2010 ANSWERS

HR Test One Study Guide_Summer2010 ANSWERS - Geol 112/ENSP...

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Geol 112/ENSP 200 HR Test One Study Guide Summer 2010 Chapter 1 (1) What do you need to have a sustainable society? Environmental Sustainability = Economic Sustainability What is sustainable development? one that meets the current and future basic resource needs of its people in a just and equitable manner without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their basic needs. live without degrading the environment or disregarding future generations. (2) What is natural capital/natural resources? Be able to list them! N atural capital — the natural resources and natural services that keep us and other forms of life alive and support our economies. Natural resources are materials and energy in nature that are essential or useful to humans. These resources are often classified as renewable ( such as air, water, soil, life, plants, and wind) or nonrenewable ( such as copper, oil, and coal, fossil fuels, nuclear power) Nonrenewable minerals (3) What are natural services? - be able to name them ! Air purification, Water purification, Soil renewal, Nutrient recycling , Food production, Pollination Grassland renewal, Forest renewal, Waste treatment, Climate Control, Population control, (species interactions) and Pest control (4) What is an ecosystem? communities of plants, animals, and microbes along with the a biotic components such as soil and water. (5) What is the link between biodiversity and natural services ? Certain species provide ecosystem services Examples are species that protect soil from erosion (grass), influencing the characteristics of the atmosphere (trees), transform energy from the sun into food energy (plants), and modify the ecosystem to allow other species to exist (elephants) ( 6) What perpetual vs. nonrenewable vs. renewable resources? Can you differentiate between them? Perpetual will never be used up. The energy of the sun is the only example. Energy from the sun is used by plants (biomass, food), makes the wind blow (wind power and climate), and evaporates water ( hydropower and climate control). Renewable can be renewed on a time scale comparable to our lifespan – typically in 0-100 years. ). Trees are a good example of a renewable resource. While biodiversity is renewable, very often the time scale is on the order of 1000s of years!! This does imply that new species can be created in that time period (that may take millions of years Non-renewable cannot be renewed in our lifetime. Examples are mineral resources and our typical energy sources: coal and oil. The earth processes that have created these resources are still operating, but on a very slow scale. (7) What is the tragedy of the commons ( where a resource is not protected and is degraded through overuse) – it applies to both overuse and pollution ! direct overuse (ie, grazing too many sheep in a pasture till the grass is destroyed, or overfishing the ocean till the fishery collapses.
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overwhelming the ability of that resource to deal with the pollutants put in it (ie, ocean dumping, getting rid of hazardous chemicals in streams, burning nasty wastes (the air).
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