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HR Test Two Study Guide_Summer2010 ANSWERS

HR Test Two Study Guide_Summer2010 ANSWERS - Geol 112/ENSP...

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Geol 112/ENSP 200 HR Test Two Study Guide Summer 2010 Chapter 7 (1) What is the difference between high input vs low input agricultural practices? Industrialized Agriculture 80% of the worlds food supply is from industrialized agriculture (high input) versus 20% from subsistence agriculture (low input) Industrialized agriculture is where large amounts of fossil fuel, chemical fertilizers, pesticides, herbicides, and single cover crops are used – this is practiced on ¼ of all cropland (2) What is the difference between industrialized vs. Traditional intensive agriculture. In particular what is the difference in the amount of energy it takes to produce food for both. Industrialized Food Production in the U.S. Industrialized farming = agribusiness Income spent on food – 2% by U.S. consumers vs. 70% by world’s poor Subsidized through taxes High health costs from harmful environmental effects Possible through cheap energy – 17% of commercial energy High Inputs (energy, water, chemicals) = Net energy loss Agribusiness in the US Green revolution at work But we use more energy to produce the food than we get from it – not sustainable! We use about 10 units of energy (fossil fuels) to produce 1 unit of food energy if you consider the entire food production, processing, delivery and preparation system In the US, food travels an average of 1500 miles from the farm to your table
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(3) How can Traditional intensive agriculture be so much more sustainable? In contrast Traditional farming methods rely heavily on human energy, as opposed to fossil fuel energy Traditional subsistence farming uses 1 unit of energy to get 1 units of food energy Traditional intensive farming uses 1 unit of energy to get 10 units of food energy How is this possible that you get 10 units for 1 unit?? Answer (with another question): What is the basis of all life? The suns energy! Combine this with sustainable power sources (animals fed on grass) and you can get more than you put in. The difference between us and them is the use of fossil fuels - a system based on these is unsustainable Low Input Agriculture Alternatives Interplanting – plant more than one crop the same plot, this reduces dependence on one crop from insects or bad weather Types: Polyvarietal cultivation – several varieties of beans together (same species) Intercropping - let beans grow on corn (diff. species) Alley Cropping – crops and trees are grown together (4) Which activities can accelerate soil erosion? Soil Erosion Causes Typical activities that cause soil erosion Logging Ranching Overgrazing Burning Off road use Development
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(5) Given all of our technological advances, why do we still have soil erosion problems in the US?
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