online reading 1 - Biology 112 Cells and Organisms - 1 Unit...

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Biology 112 Cells and Organisms - 1 Unit 1 Structure and Function of Cells Topic 1 – Cells and Organisms The cell is the basic unit of life . According to Cell Theory all living things either are cells (unicellular organisms) or are made of cells (multi-cellular organisms). The cell is the lowest level of structure capable of performing all of the functions needed for life. Goal: It is our goal in this chapter to identify distinguishing features of cells when they are categorized according to their structural characteristics (prokaryotic vs. eukaryotic) and when they are categorized according to their evolutionary groupings (Bacteria, Archaea and Eukarya).
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Biology 112 Cells and Organisms - 2 Topic 1 Learning Objectives After reading this supplementary material and the related material in the textbook you will be able to: Describe the basic components of Cell Theory. Distinguish between the structures of eukaryotic (plants, fungi and animals) and prokaryotic cells Relate the types of structures in cells to their metabolic needs for the major and minor bionutrients Accurately estimate the relative proportions of the different classes of molecules in a cell (water, DNA, RNA, protein, carbohydrates, small molecules) Provide examples of structures that distinguish between cells from the three Domains of life on Earth.
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Biology 112 Cells and Organisms - 3 1.1 Cell Theory The CELL THEORY, or cell doctrine, states that all organisms are composed of similar units of organization, called cells. The concept was formally articulated in 1839 by Schleiden & Schwann and has remained as the foundation of modern biology. The idea predates other great paradigms of biology including Darwin's theory of evolution (1859), Mendel's laws of inheritance (1865), and the establishment of comparative biochemistry (1940). Ultrastructure research and modern molecular biology have added many tenets to the cell theory, but it remains as the preeminent theory of biology. The Cell Theory is to Biology as Atomic Theory is to Physics. 1.1.1 Formulation of the Cell Theory In 1838, two German scientists, Theodor Schwann and Matthias Schleiden, had been using microscopes to examine cells in sections of different organisms. When Schwann heard Schleiden describe plant cells with nuclei, he was struck by the similarity of these plant cells to cells he had observed in animal tissues. After Schwann had seen Schleidens slides, he published a book on animal and plant cells (Schwann 1839), without even acknowledging Schleiden (!). Schwann summarized his studies in 3 conclusions about cells: 1) The cell is the unit of structure, physiology, and organization in living things. 2) The cell is both a distinct entity and a building block in the construction of organisms. 3)
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This note was uploaded on 01/26/2011 for the course BIO 112 taught by Professor Taylor during the Spring '09 term at The University of British Columbia.

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online reading 1 - Biology 112 Cells and Organisms - 1 Unit...

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