meridian_1st_semester_final_review - 1st Semester Final...

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1 st Semester Final Review ~Biology AP~ A Meridian Study Guide by John Ho and Tim Qi Lab Concepts x Pipetting h Settings (in mircroliters): P20 Min: 2 Max: 20 P200 Min: 20 Max: 200 P1000 Min: 200 Max: 1000 x Enzymes h Testing Enzyme Activity: Enzymes usually have an optimal condition of temperature and pH level where it is most effective. This can be determined through testing the enzyme in various environments. See General Concepts: Enzymes. h Spec 20: A device that measures the color or clarity of a substance through optical rays. x Genetic Engineering h Transformation and Plasmids: Insertion of foreign DNA into a host cell (usually bacteria) 1. DNA of both target and host is isolated 2. DNA samples are cut with the same restriction enzymes (forms “sticky ends”) 3. DNA is mixed and joined by base pairings. Both recombinant and non-recombinant plasmids are formed. 4. Recombinant and non-recombinant cells are isolated, usually with an antibiotic which recombinant bacteria are resistant to. h DNA Ligase and Restriction Enzymes: DNA ligase is an enzyme that can link two strands of DNA separated with a break on both sides (such as with “sticky ends”) and is necessary to insert DNA during transformation. The restriction enzyme separates two strands at a specific sequence. x Gel Electrophoresis: Separates DNA based on size and charge h Loading Dye: Weights and makes visible the DNA solution during gel electrophoresis. The dye is necessary to keep the DNA from floating and makes it visible to the unaided eye. h TAE Buffer: Sodium bromide solution that maintains a constant pH level in the solution/ h Ethidium Bromide: Makes DNA visible and fluorescent under UV light. h Agarose: The gel used during electrophoresis. h Measuring Length: Shorter segments of DNA are lighter and are found farther from the starting well, whereas heavier fragments move slower and do not move as far. x Restriction Analysis h Use: Determines where restriction sites for the enzyme being tested are located, usually done with gel electrophoresis. x Hardy-Weinberg: Copyright© 2006 (Jan 10 nd ) All rights reserved. Biology Study Guide v1.6 by Meridian notes. Do not distribute or reproduce without replicating this copyright
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h Use: Tests whether or not a population is in equilibrium; that is, not evolving. Hardy- Weinberg equilibrium conditions: 1. Very large population 2. No gene flow 3. No mutations 4. Random mating 5. No natural selection x Chi Square Analysis h Use: Determines whether or not the observed results are within 95% range of the expected results. Equation: Sum of [(expected-observed) 2 /expected] x PCR h Process: Temperature regulated with a thermocycler 1. Denaturating: Heat separates the two DNA strands 2. Annealing: DNA allowed to cool for primer attachment 3. Extension (also “elongation”): Polymerase completes the replication Process Temperature (Celsius) Denaturing 96 ° C Annealing 68 ° C Elongation 72 ° C h TAQ Polymerase: A type of DNA polymerase that builds on complementing strands
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This note was uploaded on 01/26/2011 for the course BIO 101 taught by Professor Siller during the Spring '10 term at University of Minnesota Duluth.

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meridian_1st_semester_final_review - 1st Semester Final...

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