To incorporate (territory) into an existing political unit such as a
country, state, county, or city. This often occurs when combining
two or more specific boundaries to create a larger state. An
example is the French annexation of Madagascar as a colony
The only large landmass, in the world, that is not part of a
sovereign state. It comprises 14 million square kilometer’s.
Argentina, Australia, Chile, France, New Zealand, Norway and the
United Kingdom claim portions.
Created in 1652 when whites came to South Africa. Separated
people according to their race; black, white, Asian or Colored.
Race determined land rights, shopping areas, jobs availability and
salary, property and legal rights, blacks were restricted.
The process by which a state breaks down through conflicts
among its ethnicity’s. An example is the former Yugoslavia, which
has become 5 independent countries with sovereignty.
Two types, exclusionary and inclusionary. Exclusionary is meant to
keep people out, such as the boarder between the U.S. and
Mexico. Includsionary is meant to facilitate trade and movement,
such as the US/Canada boarder.
Mountains, water and deserts serve as boundaries between states.
Mountains are effective because they are hard to cross. Deserts
are effective because they are hard to cross and sparsely
inhabited. Water boundaries are relatively unchanging.
a country lying between two rival or potentially hostile greater
powers, which by its upright existence is thought to prevent conflict
a capital is the center of government. It is almost always the city
which physically encompasses the offices and meeting places of
the seat of government and fixed by law, but there are a number of
A rotating reference frame that is used for analysis. A central force
that is exerted on all objects, and directed away from the centre of
rotation. Ex: McDonalds' expanded centrifugally from one location
An attitude that unifies people and enhances support for the state
Ex: Communist Russia
a region controlled exclusively by a city, usually having
sovereignty. Historically, city-states have often been part of larger
cultural areas, as in the city-states of ancient Greece (such as
Athens, Sparta and Corinth)