Unit 4 - Unit 4 Political Organization Term Annexation...

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Unit 4 Political Organization Term Definition Annexation To incorporate (territory) into an existing political unit such as a country, state, county, or city. This often occurs when combining two or more specific boundaries to create a larger state. An example is the French annexation of Madagascar as a colony Antarctica The only large landmass, in the world, that is not part of a sovereign state. It comprises 14 million square kilometer’s. Argentina, Australia, Chile, France, New Zealand, Norway and the United Kingdom claim portions. Apartheid Created in 1652 when whites came to South Africa. Separated people according to their race; black, white, Asian or Colored. Race determined land rights, shopping areas, jobs availability and salary, property and legal rights, blacks were restricted. Balkanization The process by which a state breaks down through conflicts among its ethnicity’s. An example is the former Yugoslavia, which has become 5 independent countries with sovereignty. Border landscape Two types, exclusionary and inclusionary. Exclusionary is meant to keep people out, such as the boarder between the U.S. and Mexico. Includsionary is meant to facilitate trade and movement, such as the US/Canada boarder. Boundary, type Mountains, water and deserts serve as boundaries between states. Mountains are effective because they are hard to cross. Deserts are effective because they are hard to cross and sparsely inhabited. Water boundaries are relatively unchanging. Buffer state a country lying between two rival or potentially hostile greater powers, which by its upright existence is thought to prevent conflict between them Capital a capital is the center of government. It is almost always the city which physically encompasses the offices and meeting places of the seat of government and fixed by law, but there are a number of exceptions. Centrifugal A rotating reference frame that is used for analysis. A central force that is exerted on all objects, and directed away from the centre of rotation. Ex: McDonalds' expanded centrifugally from one location Centripetal An attitude that unifies people and enhances support for the state Ex: Communist Russia City-state a region controlled exclusively by a city, usually having sovereignty. Historically, city-states have often been part of larger cultural areas, as in the city-states of ancient Greece (such as Athens, Sparta and Corinth)
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Colonialism the extension of a nation's sovereignty over territory beyond its borders by the establishment of either settler colonies or administrative dependencies in which indigenous populations are directly ruled or displaced Confederation Association of sovereign states by a treaty or agreement. It deals with issues such as defense, foreign affairs, trade, and a common currency.
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