APchapter5notes - Chapter5notes Thestructureandfunctionof...

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    Chapter 5 notes The structure and function of  Macromolecules
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    Concept 5.1 Polymer : a long molecule consisting of  similar or identical building blocks - like a train with many cars monomers : repeating units that are  the building blocks Diversity of life is based around 40 or 50  polymers
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    Concept 5.1 Monomers are connected together by  dehydration synthesis  (anabolic) - covalent bond w/ the loss of H 2 O Polymers are broken down by  hydrolysis   (catabolic) - reverse rxn. of dehydration synthesis - “break with water”
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    Concept 5.1 Dehydration removes a water molecule, forming a new bond Short polymer Unlinked monomer Longer polymer Dehydration reaction in the synthesis of a polymer HO HO HO H 2 O H H H 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 (a)
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    Concept 5.1 Hydrolysis adds a water molecule, breaking a bond HO HO HO H 2 O H H H 3 2 1 1 2 3 4
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    Concept 5.2 Carbohydrates : include sugars and  polymers Monosaccharides  ( monos  = single;  sacchar  = sugar) - molecular formula is CH 2 O - ex. Glucose (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) - most sugars are rings when aqueous
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    Concept 5.2 (a) Linear and ring forms (b) Abbreviated ring structure
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    Concept 5.2 Disaccharide : two monosaccharides  joined by a  glycosidic linkage - formed by dehydration synthesis - glucose + glucose = maltose + H 2 O - glucose + fructose = sucrose + H 2 O
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    Concept 5.2 (b) Dehydration reaction in the synthesis of sucrose Glucose Fructose Sucrose Maltose Glucose Glucose (a) Dehydration reaction in the synthesis of maltose
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    Concept 5.2 Polysaccharides : polymers w/ few  hundred to a few thousand monomers -fcn. of a polysaccharide is determined  by monomers and positions of  glycosidic linkages
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    Concept 5.2 Storage polysaccharides starch : found in plants; consists only  of glucose monomers (1-4 linkage); how  plants store glucose (chloroplasts) glycogen : polymer of glucose found in  animals; stored in liver and muscle cells
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    Concept 5.2 Structural polysaccharides cellulose : major component of plant  cell walls
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APchapter5notes - Chapter5notes Thestructureandfunctionof...

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