Lecture 2- Historical Development of Policing

Lecture 2- Historical Development of Policing - Lecture 2:...

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Lecture 2: Historical Development of Policing Why is it important to understand the history of policing? The study of police history can: 1. Highlight the fact of change 2. 3. Help us understand what reforms have worked 4. In short, it’s hard to know where something like policing is going, without understanding where it came from A. Policing Before Organization How long have organized, state-ran police organizations been around? Criminal law can be traced back at least 3,700 years to Hammarabi’s code But organized police agencies resembling those today have been around less than 200 years 1829 in London Though organized police agencies did not exist until 1829, society still had a need for law enforcement Prior to the police becoming an official state agency, laws were generally enforced by citizens, or citizen groups _______________- a system in old English law in which members of groups of ten families (called a tithing) pledged responsibility for maintaining order and bringing law violators to court This evolved into citizens having positions such as constables, night-watchmen sheriff’s etc. The basis was that citizens and communities had to work together to protect themselves Growing communities and crime led to expansions—day watches, cities begin to pay uniformed watchmen etc. Eventually this system of policing is deemed insufficient
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What happened to require a change to this system? -A ___________ —riots, raising crime rates etc. overwhelm this informal system of policing and gradually lead to change -As we’ll see throughout the semester, organizations like police agencies are resistant to change -And a crisis is often a necessary requirement to force change B. The First Organized Police Forces Robert Peel’s Police Force in London -The first, official organized police force was started by Robert Peel in 1829 in London -His police force had a four part mandate 1. _______________ without using repressive force and prevent having to use the military to suppress riots 2. Maintain public order through non-violent means. Use of force is a last resort. ___________________ is viewed as a main role of the police 3. Reduce conflict between the police and the public 4. Show effectiveness through absence of crime and disorder rather than presence of police action Peel’s force introduced 3 main elements to policing: 1. Mission of crime prevention (but through order maintenance as the main function—not direct crime fighting so much) 2. 3. Organizational structure related to the military with uniforms, rank designations and authoritarian command
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Policing in Colonial America -Policing agencies in the US borrowed a lot from the English Heritage -Constable, Sheriff, watch system etc. -English Heritage also impacted the overall design of policing in America:
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This note was uploaded on 02/01/2011 for the course CRJU 3110 taught by Professor Dr.joshuahinkle during the Spring '10 term at Georgia State University, Atlanta.

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Lecture 2- Historical Development of Policing - Lecture 2:...

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