human development 12-2

Human development - Moral reasoning peoples consideration of others(Hoffman 2000 Morality at the core of morality is knowledge of right and wrong

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Moral reasoning: people’s consideration of others (Hoffman, 2000) Morality : at the core of “morality” is knowledge of right and wrong consequently, everyday usage of term “morality” refers to standards of social right and wrong (Nucci, 2001) standards of social right and wrong with regard to interpersonal relationships Opposite of Morality: Moral development / reasoning: Theoretical Perspectives: Psychoanalytic: Freud – conscience developed by identifying with feared parent tenuous – sublimations of libido gender issues Behavioral: conditioned responses Hartshorne and May – 1930s – inconsistencies Cognitive-Developmental: Piaget: justice respect for rules and the fair application of the rules cooperation Kohlberg: broadly concerned with how people deal with one another, pre scriptions and pro scriptions regarding interpersonal relationships and transactions respect and responsibility Lickona: respect – restraining side of morality
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showing regard for worth responsibility – active side of morality fulfilling obligations; contributing Cognitive-Developmental: (cont.) Damon: concern for others and willingness to act on that concern sense of justice and fairness willingness to take into account all parties trustworthiness honesty in dealing with others self-control live by standards; control impulses, avoid misbehavior Hoffman: people’s consideration for others one’s sensitivity to the welfare and rights of others, especially when they conflict with one’s own interests Content vs. Structure What skills do we need to be “moral”? Perspective-taking: the ability to infer something about the experience of another the capacity to imagine what other people may be thinking and feeling Lapsley - three forms of perspective-taking: cognitive: what the other thinks affective: what the other feels spatial: what the other sees Higgins: must (1) disentangle from situational cues (2) disentangle from own perspective related to cognitive development (Piaget’s egocentrism) Empathy:
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vicarious sharing in the affective experience of the other Eisenberg and Mussen: vicarious affective state coming from and similar to another’s emotional state Hoffman: empathy includes both the cognitive awareness of another person’s feelings, perceptions, and intentions AND the vicarious affective response to that person Empathy: Hoffman: Global Empathy innate, isomorphic response to the cry of another being of the same species 1. Egocentric empathic distress 12 mos. infant responds to distress of another but can’t distinguish between other’s distress and own and can’t help 2. Quasi-egocentric empathic distress 1+ years can distinguish between other’s distress and own, but can’t discern that other’s thoughts are different from own 3. Veridical empathic distress 2 1/2 years toddler discerns both physical and psychological differences between self and other AND begins to help in an increasingly appropriate manner empathy now leads to sympathy (feels for other and motivated to help)
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This note was uploaded on 02/01/2011 for the course DFST 1013 taught by Professor Fields-moore during the Fall '08 term at North Texas.

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Human development - Moral reasoning peoples consideration of others(Hoffman 2000 Morality at the core of morality is knowledge of right and wrong

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