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Lecture 14 F 2010 - Lecture 14 Winds Rossby waves Rossby...

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Lecture 14: Winds Rossby waves Rossby waves ar: great waving undulations within: ______________________ They occur at the: _______________ The Rossby waves bring tongues of cold air southward, with warmer tropical air moving northward. There are three stages to Rossby wave formation. 1. Upper-air circulation begins to gently __________ 2. Rossby _________ begin to form, with cyclonic and anticyclonic curvature. 3. Strong development produces cells of cold and warm air – high pressure ridges and low-pressure troughs – so the waves are very pronounced. Jet streams Jet streams are ______________________________ They are normally 100-300 miles wide and 3000-7000 feet thick. They have core speeds that can exceed 190 mph. They tend to weaken during a hemisphere’s _________ and strengthen during the ________ This is because the differences in __________ – and therefore air ________ – are much less throughout a hemisphere in summer than in winter. There are two jet streams: the _______ jet stream and the _________ jet stream. The polar jet stream meanders __________________ . It can migrate as far south as _____________, steering colder air masses into North America, and influencing the path of storms. It demarcates the __________________. It also constitutes the Rossby Waves. The subtropical jet stream occurs near the boundary between tropical and midlatitude air. It meanders from _________________ latitude. T/F: Rossby waves are energy cycles associated with the Hadley cells T/F Sometimes Rossby waves are gently curving (undulating), sometimes they are very pronounced. What are true about Jet Streams? A. They weaken in winter and strengthen in summer B. They are irregular, concentrated bands of wind. C. There are three main jet streams: polar, sub-tropical and mid-latitude D. The farthest south the polar jet stream migrates is Wisconsin E. They are always very close to 60 N or S to the equator F. The Polar jet varies from roughly 30 to 70 N latitude; it can go as far south as Texas
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Local Winds There are 5 types of local winds: 1. Land and sea breezes 2. Mountain and valley breezes 3. Chinook 4. Santa Ana 5. Katabatic 1. Land and Sea Breezes : occur on coastlines.
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