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Lecture 17 F 2010 - Lecture 17 Chapter 8 Weather Today...

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Lecture 17: Chapter 8, Weather Today: Weather vs. Climate Air Masses Oragraphic Precipitation Mid-Latitude Cyclones and Frontal Lifting Weather: ________________________________ condition of the atmosphere. Important elements that contribute to weather are temperature, air pressure, relative humidity, wind speed and direction, and seasonal factors such as insolation receipt related to daylength and sun angle. Climate: _________________________ (over decades) of weather conditions and extremes in a region. Meteorology is the scientific study of the __________________ T/F Weather and climate are the same thing. T/F The study of the atmosphere is known as atmospherics. T/F Weather deals with long term patterns of rain and temperature, while climate deals with day-to-day patterns. Air Masses Each area of Earth’s surface imparts its temperature and moisture characteristics to overlying air. The effect of the surface on the air creates Air Masses, which are: regional air masses with particular ___________________________________ and stability traits. Note: stable air is air that is NOT likely to rise (colder than surrounding air). Unstable air IS likely to rise (warmer than surrounding air. These masses of air interact to produce weather patterns. Air Masses Affecting North America We classify air masses according to the _______________ and _________________ characteristics of their source regions. Moisture : designated ____ for _______________ (wet) and _____ for ______________ (dry) Temperature (latitude factor) – designated _____ (arctic), _____ (polar), _____ (tropical) There are 6 principle sources of air masses that affect North America Continental polar and Continental Arctic ( ______________ ) Pacific Maritime polar ( ____ ) Atlantic Maritime polar ( ____ ) Gulf/Atlantic maritime tropical ( _______ ) Pacific maritime tropical ( _______ ) Continental tropical (cT)
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Continental Polar and Arctic Most developed in winter and cold-weather conditions. An area covered by cP and cA air in winter has _______________, clear skies, __________ pressure, and anticyclonic wind flow. Maritime Polar These air masses exist northwest and northeast of the North American continent over the northern oceans. They cause ___________________________ conditions throughout the year. The Aleutian and Icelandic subpolar low-pressure cells are in these air masses, especially in the winter. Maritime Tropical The Gulf/Atlantic tropical air mass is made up of _________________ , and particularly unstable and active from late spring to early fall The Pacific maritime air mass is, in contrast stable to somewhat unstable and generally lower in moisture and warmth than the Gulf/Atlantic . Continental Tropical : This is a relatively small air mass that develops within the southwestern US and northern Mexico in the summer. It is hot and dry, and unstable and turbulent at the surface, with convection activity Matching: Northern Canada Southeastern/southwestern ocean Northeastern/Northwestern ocean A. Cold, stable air, clear skies, high pressure, and anticyclonic wind flow. B. Cool, moist, unstable conditions throughout the year.
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