7_ complex data types

7_ complex data types - Structures y A structure is a...

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Unformatted text preview: Structures y A structure is a collection of one or more variables grouped together under a single name he data elements in a structure are known as its ember y The data elements in a structure are known as its member variables or simply members , which can be of different types y Structures help to organize complicated data y Allow a group of related variables to be treated as a unit instead of separate entities ructures act like any basic data type y Structures act like any basic data type y May be copied and assigned to y May be passed to and returned by functions 1 Definitions y In C++, a structure is defined using the keyword struct , followed by the structure tag , a list of member variables (with pes and identifiers) enclosed within a pair of braces } nd types and identifiers) enclosed within a pair of braces { } , and a semicolon ; Syntax struct struct_tag { type_1 member_var_1; type_2 member_var_2; … y The structure tag serves as the identifier of the newly defined ructure type }; structure type 2 Definitions y A member variable and an ordinary variable can have the same identifier without conflict hey can be distinguished by ntext y They can be distinguished by context y Similarly, the same member identifier may occur in different structures y Examples: double radius; struct Circle { Member and ordinary variables can have the same identifiers double radius; int x, y; }; struct Point { t ; Member variables of the same type can be grouped into a single list separated by commas 3 int x; int y; }; The same member identifiers may occur in different structures Declarations y Once a structure type is defined, its structure tag can be used to declare variables of this structure type y xamples: Syntax struct_tag variable_name_1, variable_name_2, …; Examples: Point pt1, pt2; Circle c1, c2, c3; 4 Declarations y The declaration may also take place in the structure definition by putting the variable names before the semicolon ; after the ght brace right brace } Syntax struct struct_tag { pe 1 member var 1; type_1 member_var_1; type_2 member_var_2; … } variable_name_1, variable_name_2, …; y Examples: struct Point { int x; 5 int y; } pt1, pt2; Declarations y If the declaration only occurs once in the structure definition, the structure tag may be omitted in the definition Syntax struct { type_1 member_var_1; type_2 member_var_2; y Examples: … } variable_name_1, variable_name_2, …; struct { int x; int y; 6 } pt1, pt2; Initializations y A structure variable can be initialized in its declaration by using an equal sign followed by list of values given in the rder at corresponds to the order of the y A list of values given in the order that corresponds to the order of the member variables in the structure definition; or y Another structure variable of the same type ; or f t i th t t t t f th y A function that returns a structure of the same type y Examples: Point offset(Point x, Point y); // a function that returns a Member variables: // structure of type Point...
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7_ complex data types - Structures y A structure is a...

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