Lecture_2 - Energy. Entropy. Molecular interactions...

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Energy. Entropy. Molecular interactions & Spontaneous processes. Entropy & Energy, heat, work, enthalpy & Free energy. Equilibrium constant & Noncovalent interactions & Water and hydrophobic interactions Learning Objectives
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Energy & The normal activities of living organisms demand a constant input of energy (Greek: en , in + ergon , work) & Thermodynamics (Greek: therme, heat + dynamis, power) studies relationships between heat and other forms of energy & In thermodynamics, a system is a part of the universe (e.g. a cell), the rest of the universe is called surroundings & The First law of thermodynamics: the total amount of energy in the universe is constant, although the form of the energy may change
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Enthalpy & The energy change of a system ( U ) is the difference between heat ( Q ) exchanged with the surroundings and the work ( W ) done by the system on the surroundings : U = Q - W Q= U +W & Under constant pressure ( P ), the work is defined by the volume change ( W = P V ). Therefore , Q= U + P V & Enthalpy (Greek: enthalpien , to warm in) H = Q = U + PV & In most biochemical reactions, V is small and H = U
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Spontaneous Process &A spontaneous process occurs without the input of energy (heat exchange, gas expansion) When the stopcock is opened, the gas molecules diffuse between the bulbs and eventually become distributed evenly, half in each bulb
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Entropy
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Lecture_2 - Energy. Entropy. Molecular interactions...

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