Lecture_9 - nzymes How enzymes accelerate chemical...

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Unformatted text preview: nzymes How enzymes accelerate chemical reactions General properties of enzymes Mechanisms of enzymatic catalysis Inhibition and regulation of enzymes Learning Objectives Examples: lysozyme and serine proteases hat are Enzymes? Chemists of XIX century failed to reproduce reactions of the fermentation process by combining pure reagents. The term enzymes (Greek: enzumos, in yeast) was proposed to hint that something inside the yeast catalyzes reactions of fermentation. From ancient times, people use yeast to produce alcohol from sugar (a fermentation process). Today we know that most enzymes are proteins. However, certain RNAs also demonstrate catalytic properties. Catalysts are substances that increase the rate of a chemical reaction without being consumed in the chemical process. eneral Properties of Enzymes Most biomolecules have functional groups that, in principle, may react with each other. Cells avoid a chemical mess because the rates of uncatalyzed reactions are very low. The rates of enzymatically catalyzed reactions are 10 6 to 10 12 times greater than those of the corresponding uncatalyzed reactions. Enzymatically catalyzed reactions occur at mild conditions. eneral Properties of Enzymes Enzymes have a great degree of specificity relative to their substrates and products . Therefore, enzymatic reactions rarely have side products. Enzymatically catalyzed reactions are regulated by allosteric mechanisms, covalent modification of enzymes, and variation of the amount of the synthesized enzymes. omenclature Enzymes are named by appending the suffix -ase to the name of the corresponding substrate or chemical reaction. For example, urease catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea; alcohol dehydrogenase catalyzes oxidation of alcohols to aldehydes....
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Lecture_9 - nzymes How enzymes accelerate chemical...

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