Lecture_S - Amino Acid Metabolism Part II • Breakdown of...

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Unformatted text preview: Amino Acid Metabolism. Part II. • Breakdown of amino acids • Genetic diseases of amino acid metabolism • Sulfonamide antibiotics Learning Objectives • Heme metabolism • Fixation of Nitrogen • Essential and Nonessential Amino Acids ssential and Nonessential Amino Acids • Mammals cannot synthesize certain amino acids and must obtain them from the diet. These amino acids are called essential amino acids . Other amino acids are called nonessential amino acids. • Essential amino acids:- Basic Arg + , His + , Lys + , - Branched-chain Ile, Leu, Val- Aromatic Trp, Phe - Other Met , Thr • Nonessential amino acids:- Acidic Asp- , Glu-- Amidic Asn, Gln - Small-size Gly, Ala, Cys, Ser- Other Pro, Tyr Degradation of Amino Acids Fig. 20-13 • Oxidation of amino acids yields 10 - 15% of the metabolic energy generated by animals. • Standard amino acids are degraded to one of seven metabolic intermediates. Depending on the pathways of degradation, amino acids are divided into two groups: glucogenic and ketogenic Degradation of Amino Acids Fig. 20-13- Glucogenic amino acids are degraded to the intermediates of the citric acid cycle (pyruvate, α- ketoglutarate, succinyl-CoA, fumarate, or oxaloacetate). These intermediates may be further converted to glucose .- Ketogenic amino acids are broken down to acetyl-CoA or acetoacetate, the substances that may be converted to fatty acids or ketone bodies . • Some amino acids are glucogenic and ketogenic. ethionine Breakdown • Coenzyme tetrahydrofolate (THF) can transfer C 1 units in different oxidized states. • The pathway involves 10 reactions leading to Succinyl-CoA via propionyl-CoA. • The pathway involves methionine synthase that catalyzes the addition of one-carbon unit with the involvement of two coenzymes: B 12 and tetrahydrofolate (THF) ....
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Lecture_S - Amino Acid Metabolism Part II • Breakdown of...

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