chem6b_outlines_ch5to7

chem6b_outlines_ch5to7 - at: cm ME = Li aids 4a solids we? ,

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Unformatted text preview: at: cm ME = Li aids 4a solids we? , Immflnfllflngmr forms Ne w mats bean «flow; In a WW;W firm “at Wm mummies . in MW at Mcmna smofiym comleufl helm) we flangeng — 3 > * LOW talk he 6TH? «Hm-m at: low. {on hydWfiE/h OUPDLIL dJPDla > Loud)?“ (“Rd/[Pli’ofifidel’Fpom “om Wm QR S huge) ' reer m ram weakms orb mpmvcurpu wrmamms... WW5 are: Pmup’ m—r M, as m Wks- heme, dipou, Normans 5f VmMa-P WW5 are MOW $1ch mm Mme m m (£096 wmdr w’eaak W. . Louie“ fora/g Maui mm Polafl'tzw‘tlfia if at farnwfiax affirm WW;de PM; W {20% smug/4W 50% “f A CWW W ! *3/va Z (m'rok We. Owl-IA, K? ) e4) ’ Whme If "um/Is $901M MCS 100*)?le CdeTW) MW'MN a (swan W0!“ W5 Nfig +120 0% Q0 PDIM W3 J dipobrivwlmco 319°”, 9, on Mad" law, a polar WC W4) X9 bondade m (1M Mom, {WM d’PDLL) 2 MI W; Xe u ’fl :0: (e c. man ’10 MG gr wfiflmF C“3*g’§ ’lg‘vm add a bu wede. m "'0 "/‘d 'ng'MONDr? chafiflxflgbc “\E/O V/ J 1 (SW; We“ 7 wm Aw. W Wm rs. Known allege» «Alfiéfim W91W> comma“ 05%“ WSCU-é (WM) 60er (115% M A - amorphous (warm, much (1 «(MW fumue; “Le {KMSS’ 5“?) ' Wig?!” , Wang” (Mme Macs max WI IHF'S. . .lbwer sup/hp) K, WWW/b]: 4er a Wow mum (moms are wvwdrtqr baudaeQ‘fD WW3) -hexW chat—W Chap, w0r=H=Da AB'ABAB N _ _ . mm dog—PW (my, worfi¢|zfocg 7%ch } 712/. Pilot/Am3f Gfiwaak LLwiJr was \m-+sWWW-.-MW% mot warm ousz WM {era vafiqugkvbbLan- PWl‘¥-’L g4 % *9? mater 6 -. Themadynamics - The first Law {1r ,- open systems can eXCmnge matter 42 E whumunqans 1 {‘0er dimnce 010$!“ WSW-ms (on exononse E, but not matter m" “me mm ("1055 " aC<E|€m°VD "d‘mme Isola’ted systems can'f exchange mo’d'er or E Kg r _nsai x m = 55m“- 2 ark (moho'n against an opposmg force) = forte 1 distance (m 30.1595, .1: l ’Ujlfi know as the Internal energy, The capacity of a system 10 do work {or tofu! stored energv) “‘1” a 3M? WWW“: 3° N113 changes In U can be measured - nof QbSolqu mums! gnu {s posfiwe, man, when our]: Is done on a sys’rem (m’rerml energy t) ._ . AU: w [some posi’nve value) (see table 9.1 on 9201 for dififidfi vortonms on work) denotes work done no GXpanaton “through volume AV agamst a Constant emym Pressumj vex. “(revere-I we) "' In flee expuncron mm a vacuum, N20 because p9: =0 a checkan unit: -. C pressureleume change) = (Pasmmcmm mm) = x m; : k TIL: Jams! ' CONUQ‘SiOWiZ ILd-m‘m = “'3‘!- m3 1r wily-25 Pu _-. “H.326 P01”; ; [01325 Touws g ' “ mm“ m m“! “"9”le ‘9 " m“ be WVU‘PC‘ “0 0” ihfmfivsml (feEnV‘rmy) cm 9 In a. vartame . gwen on idem gas, 1ne work of a revamth analso’rhenmh volume (mango is w"V—mal (rwfls‘w) VJtLIiL. ' . heu’r (w .4») as YMMHY consumed as “energy mmfenpd as 0 mm” of tempemm dlfiereme. a AU Is positive when heart enters/ ls absorbed by fine system AU:q (some pman mule) M 0K W‘. .0 of C, u - l 3 I ‘8 ficgfik’oe\\‘ ‘ - endoth processes absorb hem unto The sys’tem, AH >0 (vaporimnon, cord packs) (WE-(me 1° r NW6“ \ on? 9 i" “b - exa’rnevmtc mcefise'e reteoSe heat 10 me Surround! 3 (ex loSlbnS\_ o AH<o on ‘31 "g p )1 i? a (new: cannafy)= H has two common variations: cs 18 me speufic heat capacity, per gram. Cs =fiCa-a = WISH-(3% for M3 cm rs me moior neat mmdtprex-mole, cm i c, : 7E _— T . mlorlmems ore clemces nm anon: you to observe me quotmtohve “‘9‘ NH: who. C AT .5265 of near flomfer bq equatln We Cnth Change “'1 Temperature to We EYpIQSS'mVI Chm - cal 9d 4m “9‘” med by “"9 “mam ‘3 9W“ "‘9 “m 0f “901' “"3" “if “0 fne rxn. .. remember mm energy I; conserv J right? cohnmeters nePden-t be fonq.._ mam BL uses cheap I, SWmem cups _ameuem use a? me 340 mb Fee. N . r $l'v'l1flj,’:'h{;r' f 5' ‘- * heat and work are equating capable of altering ’the internm enemy of a system - m 7 ‘ 15* Lawa Thrarmodqnumlcs = the Internal energy of an Isolated. Cystem Is Conflufl’f l - uammfic waits {’0er am, near1runsfer(0hlg work) but dm’rhermsc walls allow IT (llke giassl ' at (roman Volume AU= (makes sense- If uotume remain: constant, Theres no expumwn work WWW) ' state Functions onln colander 1hr? \m‘fiol and fmoi Stow; of a system- and not We 90m beiwem “the Tun. emote {unclth mdude P. VJT] and U. -> non-grate func’nons \nckude q, and w . AU:o for me Isoihermd expansion or compression of on Ideal gazfno farcemvoiued bfcof vucuum= no work done !) ' - mom hem capo CH. ;€S look o+ example 6.3 it! a good one. mmmm (5&6 «b a s tern 0dr men temperature olunqs has a qreomr U Than me some system on a lowerT C g; Q a m". F ‘ For: ideal gas, U ls Independent of Uotume and depends onlg on 1hr? temperature! W 2 (ms C‘JJr‘fl‘L/L/EQ’ *5 condom} V .enfmlw (H) is a 31m function that keepc nachof energy cnun es of conS’ran'f pressure a H=U*t Pv - neat capuuw at. .. " mnfiofl’f vomme = Cv ‘ “’ $01516!“ Pressure. -. (can amide b arm of , amsmme + qe'r cm sch... AU A H . AV . . 65.“:qu +2.] so A [email protected] ressure W M1,,“ at. phase manges that Seagull? mleaues are endo’rnermr; ' d ntnolgga Remap: go 53% IV] WM. ' " VOPOI‘IErmon, Subhmcmon, mhng I [fig—Ella Pme 0'30“th W we exothermrc & W A Wm Germmm, (blflens'u’mn . ‘ iW‘fiW Cum 7 Elf; Cay“ : @ ' 5' 9 é =r Lie. : Remember that fine delln Implles a change In Somermnq.- - momemmmuv “'5 (firm “WT 0mm" W) I A H; You-r9 menmq somefinmg, you go from solld (m'rlnl) to liquld (final). Then ‘Hfle molar Whalpy of WSW“; AHFus 1‘ accommnles malhng and IS uxl’tlen AHms= ’rlmfllcluIOJ— Hm (solid). Take a Sher mm flHmp. Doss II also more sense 1er? AHsub = CIst 1‘ AH“? ? note mall T lemmas (INSTANT dun melfln It vaporizahon I. file heal Inpuf Is used. to overmm Mel F's btw mace and mow Inema 1*. when m slope >0, me hear Is used. 10 mcreute 1m kE 0f me mm. an 1‘1. along The honwrlal mm, The two surrwndmg phases are m oquIIIbrmm. dbycu see «my pure fiqulé Ilzo «In never be hell—er llama “20°C? 11H, Is The eMInlpy of madam. Il‘s nearly lemme“ To AH but PIE Iliad In file expresslcn of a mammal equarron and ms unIls fl/ml. So bumolly It's AH + (file at of WIDIPS you have). Remember to factor In mlcmometnc toemaents tr meg/re presen-l In the balanced thermal equaflon (see 816.6) For file A'Hr (or Alarml same mug) of a reverse women, Its Slmply Tlne negalwe of line AHW mrme fbmnrd rm‘ - relnhng AH and Al) - 10H = AD + AnEEsRTI where Ahgas = n;.m.—nlnarnl, In moles. IF rm howl any gaseous speaes) m:au_ HI;me slate“ — The pure form 0f a mature at Ibur, demled mm a °. corre5pondlnglq,nl-lr° 15 me reactIon enth basal m reqclunls and products In melt- standard slates. AH,“ won‘l change very mudn wrm pessuro. As fisr T, ll: usually 2cl8.ISK unless otherwlse nored. - Hesse law allows us to m: the overall AHr by findan the net lam! of The Indlvldual mama/I en'lhalples of1h€Sf9PS Into Inth the overall reachon can be 3pm. Afler nunan oul me separate elemener «Demons.» sum upme rewums and produdS—v cancel cul specles Il may appear on hem SNIPS 0f The “In *’ The net rxn eqn gland belggrmggl lo me ongmoll w If need’rb reverse an elementary rm, mulnpl Ila Mr W -| *5 If need In mullely an elemean MI by a 8161 Iomemc mefiloermdo likewise to NS AHr. - All; Is the slme WWIle Cf mulls'flon- lCnHzmz * “Moog-‘4’ (Gum): + (210123H20‘f hm’r [alkanes only! Cnllzmj . AWD .5 the standard Ell‘mllpy of formmwne It‘s AHr° for 1h? filrmullon of a suhslunce Rom Ils Indlvldual elements In mar mosl slath f0rm m 2q3JBK. 80 Us Send, II2 Is 0 gas, “3 *3 fl "WWW-~- u/ 4-» 1+ obwously doesn‘t mks any E To converf a Slandorcl- stale element IMO 115 most stable form [0:(‘33‘0433- 3° W“)- - mule sure 10 label ng me slates of me elememsl "5’3? = 2 IIA °( roduclgf: §_nAngmmlI 0' ”' PW“ Bells” "‘9 31°“de reaction en-lmlpy Is equivalem to the sum of me formuhon enlnnIpIes of 911 me products rm file sum of We fbfrm’rm emnmplet of (mane producTS. (I'll use the phrase “products mmus modem“ 0 lot} 1m: la the lolllce Eh’rhnlpylenergyu “19 difference In molar en+lnalpy between a solid and a as Its me. As umln all eIIIvIaIpIes, Ils elven wHVI a consch PWSSWO m mm- AHL=llm( aseous Ions - s I AHL can“: be found by epr — you've QO‘r‘fo use lhe Eorn~Haber gcle and Some mam arm: 10 find :1: Mgoalunysl 1% Wm. mm W; Ionlc solld ~ hem H's Kcl... on bollom ble HS Ills mom Blame spews. 5" ' dIssouole mm IMO llne ms‘l Slable lunrlslof rls (nuns at 21‘, so k's send and 0': a gas. 1 bf )1 Cl ( I) remelInber HIM Chlonfle's diatom'n, “GNP W9 350-; 12>er 0mm Qquwmgm- 0‘; C“ "the muesan value lbl all m“ ‘5 ‘AHflKCLSl 3 ’ (4%? film) -AHLOF m (21 make ’me melol Inlo II 3m: New All; (I93) =" We IGIInoI (a) make file nonmetal IMO CI 91089003 Glow“ AH; (Cl,g)= + I22 l’JImol (In lemma Ille melnl mm The appropnufi’ Cullen”. ha y: + 2-: lgof metal = H-llB I'JI'IrIoI (a) We llne leftover eleclrmls) onto the mnmeuhfotqu me omen. I Cl 1' e“-’C|‘ "WM 0“ mm EA cl nonmemls <0 J = — guq unmol “Mlhaur?fln values are ‘MEemTII‘E when (53 “H5 8“P ‘8 “‘9 W “l “’9 (mm mice WW- llre east-[Ive In H YW” 30ml} down- (1) I (2) I (an 1' [Ln = nose, ulmol Is Increasing. (91$) = (9+ (,AHQ a + [055 as we“. .'. AHLc bib—(5) :— lobe-3W? “fwd (l) I (73+ [33* (II) = -[(5)%)] “— 717‘q/mol I w News; . . J'Olchlometfy com—— and wlll— mm ml If you have. Iels so , egazmyouu hemaklvg muwolwle cl BIT remembers 2(Enlulsr). if your “mm 15 0 no, when you“ 139 ugmg me appropr P l UM,le FLU$ all me precedmg OM- refer in SQCITO" notes fol cm emwpe. . AHE mm mm enmlpy,1lne amt of heat reqmred To break all. fine bond& 0% I mol of somelhl . me ‘th Lew: structures a on me read-ems and ptodudfi (IMMIer SlornDInQWV, dram more man I If (I female) men find We: iloll Inga Erbng *Elall born: formed) 69 KCIG.) «We: - spontaneoue charges occur wllhml- needl ’m be driven by an ex’rernal Influence. The ra_l'e «1' which The change acturs ts no’r under mermodlymmlc cemrsl — 1h 3 addressed wfih Klne'nce m Ch. IB.‘ NanSpnrmneous processes can proteed only if work [3 clone. _ . entraplj (or 3) re a measure of dreoraer— 1he nlgher me enlropyn‘ne hrqher the degree of disorder (is, H‘s messier.) V. '* ALL spontaneous protesses of lacufied systems will lncrease m entropy (use) 9 quonffiallvelg. where eye” lslne [evmluy humeral e and Tlsme absolu’fe’remp as. has unils » Qn‘hopy Is yel anolner slalefimcnon (along wnh U,H) '" lo calmla‘re as for an Irreversle Chlhqe, one main Idenfifi; a leyerslble path Wine Same Slates and find AS- ° Therrnal dander arlses from the inermal nnhon of molecules, posihmal alsnrder arises from Varer locanmgof rmleculeg, L*iflls = and: where C Is 'llne hemeapaa'n/ of The system. Mole man If TMCTQOSQS, T2717 and As>ol - Enmpv change ansln fiam me lso’rnerml expenemn of an Ideal gas from lm‘ouz : AS: #4291qu were a: 331 tarp " “M'W‘Yr lemeu’aer the Inverse relafion 0‘? Pand Vfrom fioyle‘SLaw... W . The normal melhng palm‘ (Tr) and normal boiling polnr (T5) are for when 1he pressure I5 lanm- ("01191th “992mg phmelflnq Pt) ‘lnree things to remember r a phase transmom m we temperature a me substance remams consl‘aaT as wear «5 applred. (e {8 used to drive The phase Orange, n01 (MSG T) (a) all file lemperarure of o. phase translnon, fine 11mlwa of meal- rs rererslble. ('3) since -lhe transmon Takes place at csnslaul hm: irisapplleaulf equal some change 111 emhcupy (‘brev =AH) . Elm core" g AH, we have a “mm-t of I '. Asmpouznm" =¢fj (ff Elli ‘KnOWfl 68 Th? standard . _ _ _ “new ’0. . “mu-g Rule; obsewanon ma”: Hump -Tb 3 85 %ol-K farmany "qt" 5 14595;“: 5:6} like A83”, all values 6! £3963; are 0180 POW“?- - The Thlrd Law of Thermodynamms 2 the Emma“ 0i all Fem!“ Wm" "0 “5 “1° “WM? WPWW “’0' \ "the Boll-mam furmnafbratsslule entropy= 8: mw where s= Lsalx lo‘z’T/u. W= 1F0fall"!"‘3‘°-""9'f”$*"IV‘JW‘N'SQ “We same Mal energy- 8 = STa‘flSfICN ennopy. 4 residual Bumpy = a non-rem value at T4: ln cemm wheels,an ls due to a surelyer disorderm moleauar armrm_ ' Theorem“ , if T=0K, than w=| because mere Bonk] one state mar The mommes can beacalpylng. Thus flnw =0 and ’me stalls l EmTOPf e la also 0. There ls no'arsoraer“ arm; sema- v -" the value of w increases as The box rs Enameled and 914qu levels. now He closer logging (see Ch. I) -mlmpan elatrsltml and Thermoal/mwc entroples- .. hem.- -s at slm‘e functions "’ NE Qifignfillle ‘3 mcreage m G wmeoas 010th alnueme mfih mcreaslng tempemm. T - me ehfropq of asubstance a’r telnperuture T: SCT)= L %crr - m m m (3°) 0 a substance is Me molar enrmpy offhe pure mbflance ar lbar and QQEISKCusunIT). efitfilghmmm grudges an be ecpec‘red fer heavrer and more weakly-bonded awe. {ungapommglw we also mm mm (mule, campus cpeaes have lnlqher molaremroples firm Those 0f When Empler ones. (gas’qumd s Sand) Wm . Because Sm for gases » smol l was and solider: Change m We amT- ofqas molecules normally dominates anV 01"“ entropy change m a reamon. ‘25:) a nercungum P110” of gas usually leads to a negcm ve Asa") - does the 100K familiar? The standard reamon entropy ASr°= zhsn‘n C 'uaal‘L‘z'assceaaa‘rfi). with n represennng me warms smldllometrlc coeffiderm. L"*"‘M_ ’" “*“m‘i'” ~ only the TOTAL entro man 9 (sumof system + surroundings) allows us 10 prealcr whelhera rent-Hon rt Ppemanews. Elam = A3 r A850" where As Is morof file system. IF mm, 30, men lhe process rs eponluneous. PM" = LL“? armnslanr pressure and Temperature ~ the erltenon for spontaneer a an Increase m 8m... nolaaeareace m the energy 01‘ a WSW!- - a process produces Maximum won: If lf’rake: place revemibly. - Tne Clauslus Inequallw for a venerable WOCEBS= 143:1 l v. ' A320 lhr my pmcess m an reamed system - can never decreasel (so 9mm e steadily mama-l3) ' When comparer reversible and lrrerersiblo prCPSCeS. il'should be noted firm am Is drfi-‘erenT 15hr each h 601118?! the amp, cf we curroumms dranges by drfferehr amulet. in each Case. mm - lrreversllole an expanslons have Met > o. 0gb r yea wont be Walualmg any 0163mm l‘thlS Class C: Equilibrium - a system a1 equillbnum mamtcuns a cicada flare and has no mama: 1o mange In tamer daemon (fbmmd or reverse) agdymmr eqambnam has forward and reverse grommet. mama ca- rnatqu mes = nu ne‘- change: - depeMtngm me ngaf dnanqes possible, vbu (Iln mve fnetmat, mednmmt, or duemmai equmbnum. - at equiubnum, giggio] v; E L’QSSCSSQS reclaim spmtanerty. caiues WINEOf nonexponsmn work pagaible, and eacfeds of AT on macho" smmmfly A8,”: A5' 9% ai- constmfi mature and Temperature W0 Spontanems Ara->0 aneaas bur reverse mm spontaneous) ' The cables Free Effigy ts defined as c a at Constant mmm, .__ 3 _. m comm tempmm 0." Act: 'TASM,‘ (me daemon of spontaneous mange as The duectton ' at eqnubnutm, 55:0. 1 [any phase chow) . ‘me reacum Elibbs energy (Ac-m, or the reocnon flee energy, 11‘. used 09 We Primdry crHanm for 99mman F@_:S.Y“=m gmmjmgogfl n a‘fau em' are reputed by a?“ , finen you haue me Ward mam aims energy. ' The standard Gibbs enequof formth m}, a. me standard teacher: free energy pex mme for me fbwmoman of a compound Ram as Elements in fhar most flame I’M“- (fl5r elemems megnselwsl Ad; *0) 79; AC1; 0110,52) =0. - Standard summons- \W,mmnMon ‘LWEI Om ° mamodymmtcauy stable If Am; OHth compound rs weqa’lwe. 16 posmve, “"5 thermodynamtcalw amiable, and my defibmpow SMIaneouEW Ghon m1 necasan'k’ cram”) mm as demem. ‘ “iab\\e"sa'osnms demmpose or «sad [may Gamma queues) ‘ “mmabile” or “mew sammces are filamodymmtcauq unstaMe but tumwe for m permmf me ~_/ ' “S’Gblmy” has no «mum 10 hmmg or memes; it vefers to me thermodynamm tandem; 0ch Mama; 1:, (lemme me its element. Btoenergehcs - noneupamton work IS. given bué "we" and is applimbte at constanfi ranpemmm and pressure. LAG =w.,mx {at constan’r T and p ' When ConstaMHcflne effects of fine tempemturo on Exes: 8%nnnei’rv, alums refer #0 AGI=AH-TAS[ Hie +empera re at mm a dnrges swan rs. T: AH? s o - most Mechanical processes are coupledflmat Iamgre mammaynamman naked. Thus 1m: en reteased fiom an emmamc pmess may be ac to power 1119 am: edmtj endomerchrca on. - mam Sourchf energy m cans: A1933» hop 1- energy mwomes— 1W8 1schetn6‘o,m\' bud L. o k for!QO mam Ma, my www.6«mfier.mm —- tncmubsg usefu! for mam lab mm; J «k Snigghmfl Rules fgr Cheater 6133 a) an mmpouwls of fine group I (altar: metal) exements “he amMomum ion [mm are sump (2) all common aaefates, armies, mud chlomsare Somme (a) 0“ mmpoumS 0? “19 groupw (Mlogenyemmms are Mum, (New mm“, of Smehmdmd _ (‘0 <1“ Mo‘s; 0'9 3""“9 9W W W890i barium! mmum. ma 81m ma ’ a/ 5mm rmose mnm m (Mel, an carbom’ces .hydmxdes exiles awn-sulfijes phosP “has L P‘ §° ' I SthdE’s. and ehramtesam méoluble. 23b ...
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This note was uploaded on 01/27/2011 for the course CHEM 6B taught by Professor Crowell during the Spring '08 term at UCSD.

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chem6b_outlines_ch5to7 - at: cm ME = Li aids 4a solids we? ,

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