Chapter 6 - 4. Metal ion = transfer electrons while bound...

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Chapter 6: Energy, Enzymes, and Metabolism I. Energy a. Metabolism i. Sum of all chem. rxns in an organism b. Anabolic i. Build up. Require energy c. Catabolic i. Break down. Release energy II. ATP a. Releases lots of energy when hydrolyzed b. Phosphorylates molecules c. ATP + H 2 O ADP + P i + free energy III. Enzymes a. Biological catalysts b. Highly specific c. SUBSTRATES i. Reactants d. Active site – binding place on enzyme for substrate e. Lower activation energy but DON’T affect final equilibrium or change in G IV.Enzyme-Substrate Complex a. Change substrate via: i. Orientation 1. Substrates must be oriented precisely for reaction ii. Strain 1. Stretch bonds in substrate = more unstable iii. Chemistry 1. R groups in enzyme affect substrate directly 2. Acid/base = exchange proton between enzyme/substrate = less stable covalence = break 3. Covalent = F group covalent bond with substrate (temporary)
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Unformatted text preview: 4. Metal ion = transfer electrons while bound to enzyme V. Enzyme Helpers a. Prosthetic Groups i. Non-amino acid permanently bound to enzymes b. Cofactors i. Inorganic ions bound to enzyme c. Coenzymes i. Carbon-containing small temporarily bound to enzyme ii. Add/remove things from substrate iii. ATP/ADP VI.Reaction Rate and [Substrate] a. Directly proportional VII. Enzyme Regulation a. Inhibitors i. Irreversible 1. Covalently bonded to side chains of active site in enzyme ii. Reversible 1. Competitive a. Compete with natural substrate for active site and prevent its entrance 2. Non-competitive a. Bind at another site on enzyme b. But can change enzyme shape to hide active site from substrate or allow it to bind, but not as well = rate = slower...
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Chapter 6 - 4. Metal ion = transfer electrons while bound...

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