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Chapter 1 - 2 Chemistry = very precise(sig figs...

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9/1 Chemistry I. Chemistry and Energy a. Chemical energy to electromagnetic (light) i. Example: firefly’s light 1. Use ATP and O 2 to convert to light (photon) b. Chemical energy to thermal energy (heat) i. Example: Need it to drive a car 1. Burning gasoline (fuel) (hydrocarbon) a. 2C 4 H 10(g) + 13O 2(g) yields 8CO 2(g) + 10H 2 0 (g) b. Chemical to thermal to kinetic c. Exothermic reaction - generates heat c. Chemical energy to kinetic energy (movement) i. Example: Metabolism and muscles 1. Fuel = ATP, glucose C 6 H 12 O 6 (NEED in brain) d. Chemical energy to electrical energy i. Example: Trying to use to try a car using H 2(g) as fuel 1. 2H 2(g) + O 2(g) yields H 2 O (l) a. exothermic reaction b. directly extract electricity from reaction II. Chemistry and Measurement a. Example: Lead (Pb) poisoning i. Exposed to through air (paints and gasoline) ii. < 10 microgram = safe iii. 10-14 microgram = slightly above normal iv. 15-19 = mild v. 20 – 44 = morderate to high vi. >45 = serious 1. microgram = 10 -6 a. very tiny amount but very important for child’s health
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Unformatted text preview: 2. Chemistry = very precise (sig. figs.) measurements III. Key Elements of Measurements a. Units i. Length – meters (m) ii. Mass – kilograms (kg) 1000 g iii. Mole – amount of particles of a substance (mol) iv. Volume – liter (L) v. Energy – joules (J) b. Accuracy and Precision i. True Value 1. 10.20 microgram/dL (bloodsugar) ii. Measured Value 1. Measure more than once!!! a. 10.5 μ g/dL b. 10.8 μ g/dL c. 10.3 μ g/dL d. 10.2 μ g/dL i. average value – 10.45 μ g/dL iii. Precision – how close the measured values are to each other iv. Accuracy – compare true value with average value IV.Reporting Data a. Significant Digits i. 10.4 μ g/dL 1. 10 – certain a. report all certain digits 2. .4 – uncertain a. report ONE uncertain digit b. Rounding i. 10.45 μ g/dL = 10.5 μ g/dL ii. 10.43 μ g/dL = 10.4 μ g/dL...
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